From the Popular Liberation Army of Colombia (EPL): 40 Years of Struggle for Revolution and Socialism

40 years of struggle for revolution and socialism


Published: February 13, 2008

40 years ago, the December 17, 1967, is born full of revolutionary optimism, confident of the future Socialist Colombia, Latin America and the Caribbean and humanity, the Popular Liberation Army of Colombia EPL.

40 years ago, the December 17, 1967, was born to lead the revolutionary armed struggle in northeastern Colombia, the Popular Liberation Army (PLA), led by the Communist Party of Colombia (Marxist-Leninist), and under the command comrade and commander Francisco Caraballo.

As pointed out by the PLA in its statement: “I was born in that corner of the country the revolutionary armed struggle led by the party of the proletariat as an essential component in the struggle for making and exercise of political power by the proletariat and the people, the overthrow of the pro-imperialist bourgeois state, and establish a popular democratic state with achieving the strategic objective of the democratic revolution, imperialism, up to socialism. ”

In Colombia and in Latin America, the struggle of people against looting imposed by imperialism and the native oligarchy progressed, was present as an example of dignity, the revolutionary triumph of the Cuban people and their heroic resistance to the aggression and the criminal economic blockade, the courageous response of the Arab peoples “with the Palestinian people to head to the fascist invasion of Israel, the struggle of the Vietnamese people, who defeated and humiliated the most powerful military powers, U.S. imperialism , and is, in the framework of universal military-political upheaval, which is the Popular Liberation Army of Colombia, which, as indicated in his statement, “is born full of revolutionary optimism, confident of the future Socialist Colombia, Latin America and Caribbean and humanity ”

The strength and ideological unity within their ranks, has made it able to withstand the onslaught of the class enemy and those who within their ranks were broken as the now defunct group opportunistic “Hope, Peace and Freedom” that late eighties abandoned the revolution and began to serve the enemies of the people.

This steadiness and leadership attributes of the Communist Party of Colombia (Marxist-Leninist) and the Popular Liberation Army, were allowed, as indicated, be an incorruptible force that has faced the toughest military, political and ideological “without morals and determination to fight has been broken,” firmness has not stopped “taking their political flexibility to armed conflict, political, social and fight for democratic space for people’s struggle” and its dedication to unit effort of construction and development of the Simon Bolivar Guerrilla Coordinator.

Comforts the world revolutionary movement and the PLA’s commitment to stay, “even in the midst of all sorts of difficulties and the siege of the enemy (…) revolutionary vitality firm and continuing to address this and move building structures in the countryside and the city ”

“The PLA reaches his 40 years of life diminished in quantity, but with the backing of the ideological and political strength of their leaders and commanders of the different lines.”

Our Party and the revolutionary movement in America and the world, presents this 40 th anniversary of the PLA and its commitment to advance the revolutionary perspective, looking at the future with optimism that honors the fallen in battle as the commander Ernesto Rojas and the thousands of prisoners of war found in the dungeons of the regime, without renouncing their revolutionary beliefs.

40 Years – Viva EPL!

–Freedom Fighter Francisco Caraballo, leader of PCdeC (ml) and Commander of the PLA

PCR/Grover Furr Interview

“Khrushchev’s accusations against Stalin are false”

Interview with Grover Furr by the Revolutionary Communist Party in Brazil [translated from Spanish]

Published: August 12, 2010

“I found that the period of Soviet history with Stalin at the head has been completely distorted. Not just ‘a mistake here and there’, but basically a massive fraud, the biggest lie of the century.”

The Issue No. 118 (July 2010) A Verdade, newspaper promoted by our comrades of the Revolutionary Communist Party (Brazil) publishes an interview with Grover Furr, author of important political works include “The Shame Anti-Stalinist”, recently launched in Moscow. Furr, a Ph.D. in comparative literature or medieval Princeton University and from 1970 taught at the University of Montclair (New Jersey, USA). He was responsible for courses on the Vietnam War and social protest literature, among others. His research interests focus mainly on Marxism, the history of the USSR and the international communist movement. In the following interview, Professor Furr talks about his investigation into accusations against Stalin and Khrushchev, of which says that “60 of the 61 charges are demonstrably false.” Below is the interview

Truth – Recently, a large number of books have been published to attack the person and work of Joseph Stalin. What explains the intensification of the struggle against the regime “Stalinist” in the U.S. and the world?

Grover Furr – Since late 1920, Stalin has been the main target of shouting anti-communist and capitalist. Leon Trotsky attacked Stalin to justify its inability to win over the working masses of the Soviet Union. The real cause of the defeat of Trotsky is his interpretation of Marxism-a kind of extreme economic determinism, predicted that the revolution was doomed to failure if it was followed by revolutions in other advanced industrial countries. But the party leadership chose Stalin’s plan to build socialism in one country. Trotsky’s ideas were (and still have) a great influence on all those anti-capitalist and openly. Trotskyist historians are well received by historians capitalists. Pierre Broué and Vadim Rogovin, leading Trotskyist historians in recent decades, have been praised and still frequently cited by historians openly reactionary. Many in the party leadership in 1930 strongly opposed Stalin when he fought for democracy within the Party and, especially, democratic elections for the Soviets. The major conspiracies in the 1930’s revealed the existence in the elites of a broad trend in opposition to the policies associated with Stalin. These conspiracies actually existed: the opposition party trying to overthrow and assassinate Soviet leaders of government, or take power leading a revolt in the rear, in collaboration with the Germans and Japanese. Nikolai Ezhov, head of the NKVD (People’s Commissariat for Internal Affairs), had its own right-wing conspiracy, including collaboration with the Axis. To achieve its objectives executed hundreds of thousands of innocent Soviet citizens to undermine the trust and loyalty to the Soviet government. When Stalin died, Khrushchev, and many are party leaders who could blame these great Stalin repressions. They also invented many outright lies about Stalin, Beria Lavrentii and close associates of Stalin. When Gorbachev took power (1985) also realize that their capitalist “reforms”-the distance equal to capitalist market relations “could be justified if its anti-communist campaign was described as an attempt to” rectify the crimes of Stalin. “These lies and horror stories are still the main form of anti-communist propaganda in the world today. The trend is to intensify, as the capitalists are pulling down wages and social benefits of workers walk into an exacerbated nationalism, to racism and war.

Truth – What made you become interested in the history of the USSR?

Grover Furr – When I was in college, from 1965 to 1969, joined protests against U.S. war in Vietnam. One day, someone told me that the Vietnamese communists could not be “good guys” because they were all Stalinists and Stalin killed millions of innocent people. ” That stuck with me. It was probably that, in early 1970, so I read the first edition of The Great Terror by Robert Conquest. I was impressed when I read it. But I knew a certain field of Russian and could read this language, because I had studied Russian literature from the school. Then I examined the book by Robert Conquest carefully. Apparently, nobody had done it! I discovered the dishonest use of sources makes Conquest. His notes do not support any of his conclusions “anti-Stalin.” Basically, he used any source that was hostile to Stalin, regardless of whether it was reliable or not. So I decided to write something coherent. It took me a long time, but eventually published in 1988. During this time I studied the research being done by new historians of the USSR, Arch Getty, Robert Thurston and many others.

Truth – Antistalinskaia Podlost, his book (“The Shame Anti-Stalinist”) was recently published in Moscow. Tell us a little about it.

Grover Furr – A decade ago I heard about the large number of documents that were revealed in secret files of the former Soviet Union and began to study them. I read somewhere that one or two statements by Khrushchev in his famous “secret speech” of 1956, were identified as false from beginning to end. So I thought I could do some research and write an article pointing out some errors exposed by him during the “secret speech.” I never imagined to find that everything he said Khrushchev (60 of 61 charges against Stalin and Beria) was to be completely false. No 61 cargo could not find anything that would confirm or denied by. I realized that this would change everything, because virtually the entire history since 1956 is based on the words of Khrushchev or writers related to it. I found that the period of Soviet history with Stalin at the head has been completely distorted. Not just “a mistake here and there, but basically a massive fraud, the biggest lie of the century. And thanks to my colleague from Moscow, Vladimir L. Bobrov, who first showed me these documents, gave me valuable advice on several occasions and did an excellent job of translation. Without the dedication of Vladimir nothing would have happened.

Truth – In your research you had direct access to newly declassified Soviet archives. What these documents say about the millions who died under socialism, especially during the administration of Stalin?

Grover Furr – whereas people die all the time, I guess you talk about death “surplus.” Russia and Ukraine experienced famine every three or four years. The 1932-33 famine occurred during collectivization. No doubt that more people died than would have died naturally. However, many people die in famines successive-every three years, indefinitely into the future, if there was no collectivization. Collectivization meant that the famine of 1932-33 was the last, with the exception of the severe famine of 1946-1947, which was much worse, but that was due to the war. And as I mentioned before, Nikolai Ezhov deliberately killed thousands of innocent people. It is interesting to consider what might have happened if Russia had not collectivized agriculture and had not accelerated its industrialization program, and if the intrigues of the opposition in the 1930’s had not been crushed. If the USSR had not done the collectivization, the Nazis and the Japanese would have won. If Stalin had not contained the right-wing conspiracies, Trotskyists, nationalists and military, the Japanese and the Germans had conquered the country. In both cases, the victims among the Soviet people would have been much, much more numerous than the 28 million war dead. The Nazis would have killed many more Slavs and Jews that they killed. With these resources, and perhaps even with the armies of the USSR for its part, the Nazis would have been much, much stronger when fighting against England, France and the U.S. With the Soviets and the oil resources of Sakhalin, the Japanese would have killed many, many more Americans. The fact is that the USSR under Stalin saved the world from fascism, not only once, during the war, but three times: by collectivization, and the disruption of the opposition right-tortskista-military and in war. How many millions this give him?

Truth – Some authors have tried to find similarities between Stalin and Hitler, and some even say that the supposed “Stalinism” was “worse” than Nazism. Was there really any relationship between Stalin and Hitler?

Grover Furr – The anti-capitalist and not examine the class struggle and exploitation. In fact, it could be assumed that these things do not exist or are not important. But the class struggle, oppression is caused by the motor of history. Ignore this is falsifying history. Hitler was a capitalist, an authoritarian type is common in many capitalist countries. Stalin led the Bolshevik Party and the USSR, when the Communists around the world were fighting against all forms of capitalist exploitation. When we say “worst” we must always ask: “Worse for whom?” The USSR and the communist movement during the Stalin definitely was “worse than the Nazis” for capitalists. That’s why they hate capitalists to Stalin and communism. The communist movement during the period of Lenin and Stalin, and even later, was the greatest force for human liberation in history. And again we must ask, “Whose Liberation? “Liberation from what?” The answer is: the liberation of the working class in the world of capitalist exploitation, misery and war.

The Truth – One of the most frequent attacks Stalin is that he would be responsible for the famine in Ukraine in 1932-1933, also called the Great Famine. Does this version of the story corresponds to what actually happened?

Grover Furr – The “Holodomor” is a myth. Never happened. This myth was invented by pro-fascist Ukrainian nationalists, along with the Nazis. Douglas Tottle demonstrated in his book “Fraud, Famine and Fascism” (1988). Arch Getty, one of the best historians bourgeois (ie, no Marxist and non-communist), also has a good article on this. Robert Conquest is what gives the old version that the Soviets deliberately caused the famine in Ukraine. No shred of evidence that might confirm this vision, so such a test has never come to light. The myth of the “Holodomor” persists because it is the “founding myth” of rights of Ukrainian nationalism. Ukrainian nationalists invaded the USSR along with the Nazis killed millions of people, including many Ukrainians. His only “excuse” is the propaganda lie that “freedom fighters” against the Soviet communists, who were “worse than Nazis.”

The Truth “A message for Brazilian workers. Grover Furr – Fight for communism! All power to the working class around the world!

Yugoslavia’s Hoxha Vs. Albania’s Hoxha


Munich, March 21 – (Stankovic) — TITO has chosen Enver HOXHA’s
namesake in Yugoslavia, Fadil HOXHA, a member of the Presidency of the
Socialist Alliance’s regional executive in Pristina, to counteract
“the slander campaign by Albanian leaders against Yugoslavia.” (See
CNR items D-115, D-116, and D-117 of March 20.)

At the plenary meeting of the Yugoslav front organization of
the autonomous Kosmet (Kosovo & Metohia) region Fadil HOXHA attacked
Enver HOXHA’s speech of Feb. 13 which charged that the Yugoslav
leaders have pursued policy of destroying national character of the
Albanian minority in Yugoslavia.

Following his speech the plenum passed a resolution protesting
against the assumption by Enver HOXHA of the right to represent the
interest of the Albanians in Yugoslavia and expressing loyalty to
the Yugoslav federal government. Fadil HOXHA also said that the
anti-Yugoslav campaign in Albania was aimed at causing distrust among the
Albanains in Yugoslavia toward TITO.

[In his speech before the plenary session of the Central Committee
held between Feb. 13 and 17 in Tirana, Enver HOXHA said that “the
Yugoslav rulers have taken a chauvinist and anti-Marxist attitude
towards the people of Kosovo.” He added that “a wretched situation
prevails in that region, with the Yugoslav leaders pursuing a policy
of destroying the people’s national character. Tens of thousands of
citizens from Kosovo have had to give up their land and homes to
emigrate to Turkey. Yugoslavia is trying to transform Kosovo into
a base for action against Albania. Day by day the Yugoslav press of
Kosovo and Metohia are unleashing slanderous propaganda against our
party and our people’s democracy…” This is the reason why Enver
HOXHA suggested to the Albanian newspapers that their “internationalist
duty” was ” to enlighten the Albanians of Kosovo so that they do not
fall for the chauvinist anti-Marxist propaganda (of the Yugoslav

In his answer to Albania’s (Enver) HOXHA, Yugoslavia’s (Fadil)
HOXHA said that his namesake’s “stories about denationalization
have no other aim but to cause distrust among the Albanians in
Yugoslavia toward the socialist country in which they live. ” Fadil HOXHA
Then enumerated all the advantages which the Albanian minority in Yugoslavia enjoys, especially the progress being achieved in the
economy and in culture. He sharply rejected Enver HOXHA’s allegations
about “tens of thousands of citizens from Kosovo” having emigrated
to Turkey because of the alleged “Yugoslav leaders’ pursuing a policy
of destroying the people’s national character.” Fadil HOXHA said that
out of 524,500 Albanians living in Yugoslavia only 291 have
moved to Turkey,” mostly people who have their breadwinners or families
in Turkey, or dispossessed beys, agas and merchants.”

[It is interesting to note that Fadil HOXHA speaks only of
524,500 Albanians as living in the region of Kosovo and Metohia.
According to the latest Yugoslav data the population of the Kosmet
was 880,000 on June 30, 1956. True, there are about 200,000 Serbs
among them (again according to the same statistical data) but in
any case there should be at least 680,000 Albanians in the area
rather than 524,500. The difference between these two last figures
is obviously not 291.]

After adopting a resolution “refuting the allegations about State
affairs in this region made by Enver HOKHA,” the popular front
Plenum of Kosovo add Hetohia lent “full and solid support to the
Federal Executive Council (of Yugoslavia i.e. the Government) in
taking measures against this and similar acts of the Albanian
Government, which sonstitute gross interference in the domestic
affairs of Yugoslavia and an attack on the territorial integrity and
Sovereignty of Socialist Yugoslavia” – the words taken from the
Feb. 26 speech of Koca POPOVIC, Yugoslav State Secretary for Foreign
Affairs, made at the Yugoslav National Assembly.

The resolution further “vigorously protests against the assumption
by Enver HOXHA and his associates of the right to represent the
interest of the Albanians of Kosovo and Metohia.”

As could have been foreseen, the section of Enver HOXHA’s Feb.
13 speech dealing with the Albanian minority in Yugoslavia provoked
TITO’s anger more than anything else. This was the first open attack
by an Albanian Communist leader on the “wretched situation” allegedly prevailing in that part of Yugoslavia, and constituted a full-fledged
declaration of propaganda warfare on TITO.

In the above-mentioned speech of Feb. 26 Koca POPOVIC said that
“Albania is the only country of the Socialist camp with which,
though no fault of ours, our relations have never been really
normalized…” Politika of March 15 added to this extent that
Albania’s “22 anti-Yugoslav attacks” between Dec. 1, 1956, and
March 15, 1957, have “in point of ‘gravity’ even surpassed Soviet
propaganda” with its 33 major attacks on TITO and Yugoslavia within
the same period.

Albania’s offence is all the greater in TITO’s eyes since the
Albanian Communist Party owed its information in 1941 to the aid
and initiative of Yugoslav Communists. Before 1941 there were only
a few Communist groups in Albania, the most important group being
in Kor�e. To this group belonged Enver HOXHA, then still an
insignificant teacher at the Korce grammar school. (See S. Skendi’s “Albania”,
published by the Mid-European Studies Center of the Free Europe
Committee, Inc. – New York, 1956.)

Some months after the attack of the Soviet Union by Nazi Germany,
two emissaries of TITO, Miladin POPOVIC and Dusan MUGOSA, members
of the regional committee of the Yugoslav CP for Kosovo and Methohia,
arrived in Tirana entrusted with the task of forming an Albanian
Communist Party. In a short time they succeeded in uniting the various
groups and in creating a single party on November 8, 1941. They
stayed on in Albania throughout the war and were the real leaders
of the Albanian party, Miladin POPOVIC as political organizer, Dusan
MUGOSA as military organizer. However, as the number of Yugoslav
“advisers” in Albania later increased, so did dissatisfaction among
the Albanians, both Communists and fellow-travelling members of the
Communist-led “Democratic Front”. They all resented control by the
Yugoslavs, and suffered ruthless persecution at the hands of the
pro-Yugoslav Koci XOXE, Minister of the Interior, head of the Secret police
and Secretary of the party, who with the backing of the Yugoslavs
became the most powerful man in the Party.

After TITO’s expulsion from the Cominform, however, the
anti-Yugoslav elements in the Albanian CP, backed by the Kremlin
and led by the Premier Enver HOXHA (subsequently Party secretary),
took sole power into their hands, began to treat Yugoslavia as an
enemy country and secured the execution of Koci XOXE in 11949. This
attitude has remained constant to this day and it seems that
Albania will, for a long time to come, be “the only country of the
socialist camp”, in POPOVIC’s words, with which Yugoslavia’s
relations have not been “really” normalized and which is “obviously”
not anxious to secure their normalization.


Comrade Hoxha on the 1956 Counterrevolution in Hungary

October 23 marked the 53rd anniversary of the 1956 counter-revolutionary riots in Hungary. On this occasion, proto-fascist puppet forces under the command of Titoite loyalists and the NATO-imperialist bloc attempted to quell the growth and development of socialism and people’s democracy in Hungary in a reactionary campaign to bring back to power the deposed fascists.

Here’s what Comrade Hoxha had to say on the subject in a speech delivered before 81 other Communist and Workers Parties in November 1960:

In our opinion, the counter-revolution in Hungary was mainly the work of the Titoites. In Tito and the Belgrade renegades, the U.S. imperialists had their best weapon to destroy the people’s democracy in Hungary.After comrade Khrushchev’s visit to Belgrade in 1955, no more was said about Tito’s undermining activity. The counter-revolution in Hungary did not break out unexpectedly. It was prepared for, we might say, quite openly, and it would be futile for any one to try to convince us that this counter-revolution was prepared in great secrecy. This counter-revolution was prepared by the agents of the Tito gang in collusion with the traitor Imre Nagy, in collusion with the Hungarian fascists and all of them acted openly under the direction of the Americans.

The scheme of the Titoites, who were the leaders, was for Hungary to be detached from our socialist camp, to be turned into a second Yugoslavia, be linked in alliance with NATO through Yugoslavia, Greece and Turkey, to receive aid from the U.S.A. and, together with Yugoslavia and under the direction of the imperialists, to continue the struggle against the socialist camp.

The counter-revolutionaries worked openly in Hungary. But how is it that their activities attracted no attention? We cannot understand how it is possible for Tito and Horthy’s bands to work so freely in a fraternal country of People’s Democracy like Hungary where the party was in power and the weapons of dictatorship were in its hands, where the Soviet army was present.

We think that the stand taken by comrade Khrushchev and the other Soviet comrades towards Hungary was not clear, because the greatly mistaken views which they held about the Belgrade gang did not allow them to see the situation correctly.


Whether to intervene or not to intervene with arms in Hungary is, we think, not within the competence of one person alone; seeing that we have set up the Warsaw Treaty, we should decide jointly, because otherwise it is of no use to speak of alliance, of the collective spirit and collaboration among the parties. The Hungarian counter-revolution cost to our camp blood, it cost Hungary and the Soviet Union blood.

Continue reading “Comrade Hoxha on the 1956 Counterrevolution in Hungary”

Extracts from the Letter from the CC of the Party of Labor of Albania to the CC of the Communist Party of China (1978)


Stamp with President Mobutu of Zaire meeting Chairman Mao; Mao gave Mobutu $100 million in technical aid

Aid to Albania from China

On July 7, 1978 the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People‘s Republic of China handed an official note to the Embassy of the People‘s Socialist Republic of Albania in Peking, whereby it announces the decision of the Chinese Government to stop its economic and military aid and its aid payments to Albania and bring back its economic and military experts working in Albania up till that date. With this perfidious and hostile act towards socialist Albania, you unscrupulously scrapped the agreements officially concluded between the two countries, brutally and arbitrarily violated elementary international rules and norms and extended ideological disagreements to state relations with Albania. Taking this hostile step against socialist Albania, you seek to hit at, and damage, the economy and defence capacity of our country, to sabotage the cause of the revolution and socialism in Albania. At the same time, you gravely undermine the fraternal friendship between the Albanian and Chinese peoples. Wishing ill to a socialist country, such as the People‘s Socialist Republic of Albania, you give satisfaction to the enemies of socialism and the revolution. The responsibility for this reactionary and anti-Albanian act, as well as its consequences, lies completely with the Chinese side.

The Central Committee of the Party of Labour of Albania and the Albanian Government denounce the brutal cessation of aid and loans to socialist Albania before all world public opinion as a reactionary act from great power positions, an act which is a repetition, in content and form, of the savage and chauvinistic methods of Tito, Khrushchev and Brezhnev which China, also, once condemned.


To any normal person it is unbelievable and preposterous that Albania, a small country, which is fighting against the imperialist-revisionist encirclement and blockade and which has set to large-scale and all-round work for the rapid economic and cultural development of its country, which is working tirelessly for the strengthening of the defence capacity of its socialist Homeland, should cause and seek cessation of economic co-operation with China, refuse its civil and military loans and aid. Inspired by the teachings of Marxism-Leninism and the principles of proletarian internationalism, the Albanian people, their Party and Government have sincerely and consistently fought for the strengthening of friendship, fraternal co-operation and mutual aid between Albania and China.


Now, as in the past, the Albanian people, their Party and Government stick to their assessments of this aid and its role, among other external factors, in the development of our country. Socialist Albania has never considered its friendship with the peoples of other countries a means of economic profit. At the same time, it has permitted nobody to consider economic aid and co-operation an investment whereby political and ideological views, which run counter to Marxism-Leninism and socialism, are dictated to, and imposed on, our country. The People‘s Socialist Republic of Albania has never sold out its principles, it has never traded on them.

Continue reading “Extracts from the Letter from the CC of the Party of Labor of Albania to the CC of the Communist Party of China (1978)”



Step #1: Come up with an awesome idea for a story that’s decently original.
Step #2: Work on it for a month or so, trying to get it right.
Step #3: Stumble upon another book out there that’s already published and has almost the exact same plot.
Step #4: Despair.
Step #5: Remember that nothing is original and keep trying to improve writing anyway.
Does this ever happen to anyone else?

Guess what? I aspire to become an author, however I cannot seem to finish projects once I start them. I can put my ideas to writing, no problem. I can put them to paper – again, no problem. Most people cannot reach beyond those beginning steps, especially with fiction and poetry. When the time comes to start writing, I am somehow unable to organize the random lines and paragraphs I write into a single flowing unit. How do I overcome writers’ block when it comes to not writing and composing chapters, but combining them into a single work?

I suppose doing recreational drugs works for musicians. For me, there are notes, notes and more notes. To this day, I spend so much time worrying about how to precisely put down what I want to say that only panicked scraps emerge. Worse, well-structured paragraphs become dense, clunky and overwritten. I suppose there is no solution except to write rants like this in an attempt to get the juices flowing. “Just write,” I say. “C’mon, you don’t need a floating plastic bag or tantric yoga. Just write the damn shit even if it feels all wrong.” Yeah, easier said than done. I don’t mind telling my readers that I often write exactly what I don’t want to write, such as this present pile of garbage. Just cranking out a few pages of “hurr action and boobs” can make the brain move forward. There is no writer’s block for me, technically. I just don’t write how and what I wish to. What I need is a habit – the habit of getting ideas down at the very least. They can be organized later, I have done it before. Hopefully they can become coherent upon revision.

To All Anti-ML Idiots

There are those who say that Marxism-Leninism is dogmatic and is not present on the world stage. There are those who say that parties that uphold the line of Enver Hoxha are no more than internet communists. These people are idiots.

Current Reading List

Revisionism – Leopold Labedz

On the Justice of Roosting Chickens –Ward Churchill

Marxism, Revisionism and Leninism – Richard F. Hamilton

Criticism and Ideology – Terry Eagleton

Dickens Redressed – Alexander Welsh

Heathcliff and the Great Hunger – Terry Eagleton

Oxford Guide to Chaucer

Agents of Repression: the FBI’s Secret War Against the Black Panther Party & the American Indian Movement – Ward Churchill

Marxist Study of the Brontes – Terry Eagelton

A Way to Compare World Outlooks, Ideologies

The way in which various ideologies can influence one’s world outlook and evaluation of objective evidence is best shown through the following question. This shows how Marxism is far more than just a socio-political theory, as are other ideologies such as liberalism.

Q: Why do nations go to war?

A: Human nature – classical realism

Misunderstanding between peoples – idealism/liberalism

The natural state of man is anarchy and competition – Neorealism

Bad ideas and capitalist systems – Marxism/constructivism

War doesn’t exist – postmodernism

“Kubla Khan”

It is far too easy to dismiss S.T. Coleridge’s “Kubla Khan” as a simple opium-induced pipe dream, though it certainly was. He imagines a fairy tale world of rulers and pleasure-domes, which even then is haunted by shrieking maidens and ice caves where no man may tread. In it, the author explores his own alienation from his body by flamboyantly demanding liberation from reality and claustrophobic imperialism.

Meanwhile, Coleridge’s highly experimental masterpiece “Rhyme of the Mariner” is rife with the same sort of alienation as “Kubla Khan,” though not nearly in such a Utopian setting. The burning question of the poem, addressed by so many scholars and academics since it was written, must be stated—why did the narrator shoot the albatross? It is an action that is given no explanation, that seems completely unnecessary and arbitrary. The shooting has more significance than it seems at first, being born out of the “modernism” of 19th century England—a world where people were first beginning to question established religious institutions, a world where pure chance creates reality, where meanings become pointless. This story gravitates towards a radically pessimistic vision of nihilistic subjectivity, and uses the albatross around the neck of our dear mariner as a metaphor for the crushing weight of man’s own alienation from himself and the works he produces, just as “Kubla Khan” uses it’s entire existence as a fantasy as an example of that same estrangement.

“Resolution and Independence”

“Resolution and Independence” is certainly one of Wordsworth’s stranger poems, one in which he sees an old leech-gathering man as an unlikely oracle. For a “gentleman” such as Wordsworth it must indeed be a rare thing to see a working class man reduced to such drudgery, but is his poem merely an aristocratic fantasy, a comfort that conceals real conditions of exploitation? It is not as simple and vulgar as that, though one would certainly be tempted to say so, due to Wordsworth’s tribute to the hard and “noble” life of the old gatherer. The question that haunts the text is whether it is a product of a man whose social views are outraged by the hardships of such working class men or promoting a conservative ideology based on the supposed moral “value” of hard work.

Unfortunately, I am tempted to say the latter, since though Wordsworth was not necessarily born into privilege, his silver-tongued language betrays the silver spoon in his mouth. He views personal and individual “resolution” as the solution to a lack of “independence” in choice of profession. There is certainly nothing wrong with the old man’s role as a producer being upheld as greater than any holy oracle, but to uphold the conditions of his exploitation as either “resolution” or “independence” is highly questionable. We may be witnessing a sign of the transition from the younger, more radical Wordsworth into the older, more conservative version.

Grover Furr on the Solidarność Counterrevolution in Poland.

Solidarność, in English “Solidarity,” was a reactionary Polish organization that led the counterrevolution against the revisionist government of Poland. Here is Grover Furr’s excellent, well-cited and and concise work on the organization.

(Originally published in Comment [Montclair State College, NJ], vol. 1, nos. 2 (Spring, 1982), pp. 31-34.

View the PDF here.

The AFT, the CIA, and Solidarność

by Grover C. Furr
English Department, Montclair State College

In its issue of Sept. 29, 1981, the Wall Street Journal, not noted for being “pro-labor,” published an interesting editorial in favor of the Polish Solidarność (Solidarity) union. The WSJ attacked those forces that, it said, questioned the connection between the AFL-CIO and Solidarity. It showed particular irritation over claims that, through the AFL-CIO, the U. S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) as undertaking to manipulate Solidarity:

How easy it is to make lists of the CIA connections [with the AFL-CIO]; the parallel aims, the instances of collaboration, the communications and shared acquaintanceships. How easy to use the list to try to discredit the AFL-CIO enterprise in Poland, and more important, to try to expunge the colossal embarrassment Solidarity represents to worldwide communism.

The WSJ editorial does not, interestingly, deny the AFL-CIO/CIA /Solidarity connection at all. Rather, it warns that any publicity given this connection tends to “tarnish” or “delegitimitize” Solidarity and the AFL-CIO, and so to play into the hands of the Soviet Union. Correct, no doubt; and Counterspy magazine, the one singled out for special criticism by the WSJ editorial, is ideologically allied with the Soviets, frequently publishing articles by members of the Communist Party USA. But, what is the truth of these charges?

Continue reading “Grover Furr on the Solidarność Counterrevolution in Poland.”

Nazi Murderer of Ernesto “Che” Guevara Klaus Barbie was German & CIA Agent

From Nazi Criminal to Postwar Spy

German Intelligence Hired Klaus Barbie as Agent

By Georg Bönisch and Klaus Wiegrefe 


Klaus Barbie was a notorious Nazi war criminal known as the “Butcher of Lyon” because of his horrific deeds in occupied France. Now new research has revealed that he also worked as a spy for Germany’s BND intelligence agency while in hiding in Bolivia after the war. The agency almost certainly knew about his dark past.

The man who Germany’s foreign intelligence agency, the Bundesnachrichtendienst (BND), listed in its files as Wilhelm Holm belonged to a unique species in the shadowy world of intelligence. The overweight German businessman with the carefully combed dark hair was a so-called “tipper.”

Whenever Holm noticed someone during his travels around the world who seemed to have the makings of an agent, he would send a message to BND headquarters in Pullach near Munich. In 1965, for example, after he had spent four weeks in the Bolivian capital La Paz, he raved about a fellow German who had two important virtues: He was apparently a staunch German patriot and a “committed anticommunist” — something that was practically a badge of honor during the Cold War era.

A few weeks later, the BND hired the new man as an agent. He was given the code name “Adler” (eagle) and the registration number V-43118. “Adler” lived in La Paz under the name Klaus Altmann.

But Altmann wasn’t his real name. In reality, he was one of the vilest criminals of the Nazi dictatorship: Klaus Barbie, the notorious “Butcher of Lyon.” After the war, French courts sentenced Barbie, the former head of the Gestapo in Lyon, to death in absentia. There are many indications that the BND was aware of all of this when it decided to hire him.

Delight in Torture

Barbie, who was born in 1913, personally tortured men, women and even children on the second floor of the Hotel Terminus in Lyon. The surviving victims remember, most of all, the way Barbie would laugh quietly while he tortured them. The son of a teacher from the town of Bad Godesberg, which is now part of Bonn, Barbie also had his henchman break the arms, legs and several ribs of Jean Moulin, a figurehead of the French Résistance and a confidant of the later French president, Charles de Gaulle. Moulin died soon afterwards. Barbie also ordered the deportation of Jewish children from an orphanage in Izieu near Lyon. The children were shipped to the Auschwitz concentration camp, where they were murdered.

For the last two decades, there have been suspicions that Altmann, alias Barbie, was a spy for Germany’s foreign intelligence agency. But those suspicions have only now been confirmed by BND files that SPIEGEL has analyzed in Germany’s federal archives in the city of Koblenz. According to the files, Barbie received his first monthly payment, in the amount of 500 deutsche marks, from Pullach in May 1966. He later collected performance bonuses. In most cases, the BND made the payments by wire transfer into an account with the Chartered Bank of London in San Francisco. According to the BND files, Barbie delivered at least 35 reports to the agency.

The arrangement eventually became too dicey for the intelligence agency. There was talk of a “substantial security risk” to the BND, which was apparently increasingly concerned that the East German Stasi or the Soviet KGB could blackmail Barbie by threatening to disclose his Nazi past, as they had already done with a few other BND agents.

His handler, who was code-named Solinger, met with Barbie in Madrid shortly before Christmas in 1966 and told him that, because of the federal government’s tight finances, the BND’s “budget had been cut significantly.” Latin America, Solinger told Barbie, was being abandoned as a “reconnaissance region.” Barbie was paid an additional 1,000 deutsche marks in hush money.

Convicted of Crimes against Humanity

For the BND, the “Adler” case was now closed. The spy agency also opted not to notify the German judicial authorities of the whereabouts of Barbie, even though he was a wanted murderer and war criminal.

Barbie’s cover wasn’t blown until 1972, when he was tracked down by the legendary French Nazi-hunters Beate and Serge Klarsfeld. A diplomatic tug-of-war followed that lasted for years. Bolivia eventually extradited Barbie to France in 1983, where he was convicted of crimes against humanity and imprisoned until his death in 1991.

Today there is no one left at the BND who was responsible for the Barbie case or who could be held responsible. The revelations about the agency’s inglorious role in the affair might even come in handy for the current BND president, Ernst Uhrlau. For years, he has wanted to shed more light on the history of the BND in the postwar period, when it employed a number of former Nazis. He is currently negotiating with a historical commission which would be tasked with researching the agency’s past and given unprecedented access to its files. Cases like Barbie’s reinforce the need for such an initiative.

The Americans declassified extensive intelligence files about Barbie about 30 years ago. The Counter Intelligence Corps (CIC), a former intelligence agency within the US Army, hired Barbie after the war and, for a time, protected him from French criminal investigators. In 1951, the Americans even helped Barbie flee to Bolivia. In an unusual turn of events, Washington later issued a formal apology to Paris as a result of these actions.

According to the files, the BND’s cooperation with Barbie began with the tip it received from Wilhelm Holm. Of course, some of the former SS men and Gestapo officials who were now with the German intelligence agency must have recognized the new agent from their days in the Third Reich. At least one of them, Emil Augsburg, a former SS expert on Eastern Europe, had worked with Barbie for the CIC. The Gehlen Organization, the precursor to the BND, was also aware of Barbie’s address in the Bavarian city of Augsburg until he fled to Bolivia. A BND document dating from 1964 even states that Barbie was “possibly” living in La Paz.

Expanding the Network

At the time the BND, which initially operated only in Europe, was expanding its network of agents around the world and was paying close attention to Bolivia, which was governed by a military junta. The West feared that a revolution against the military leadership could lead to the country becoming part of the Soviet sphere of influence, like Cuba.

Barbie alias Altmann lived with his wife in the Bolivian capital, where he ran a company called La Estrella, which supplied the Boehringer pharmaceutical company in the western German city of Mannheim with cinchona bark, from which the medication quinine was extracted.

In late November 1965, BND tipper Holm paid a visit to Barbie. A mutual acquaintance had set up the meeting. Holm told Barbie that he was looking for an agent for a Hamburg company and asked him whether he would be interested. Barbie apparently trusted his visitor. According to BND documents, the two men became “good friends” within a short period of time. Holm dined with the Barbie family almost every day at their table at the German Club in La Paz.

Of course, the host appears to have concealed his true identity from Holm. “Altmann,” the tipper noted, had been with the Waffen SS and had fled from East Germany in 1950. But Holm did not fail to notice the expatriate’s political leanings. For example, Barbie alias Altmann told him the story of how Jews had been barred from membership in the German Club. Barbie’s wife, who ran the club’s library, was “particularly proud” to show Holm its Nazi literature.

Part 2: ‘Discreet and Reliable’

The BND’s Department 934, which handled such cases, decided to recruit the former SS captain. They were interested in the good contacts that Barbie bragged about, such as with the Bolivian interior minister and his deputy, as well as with the head of one of the country’s intelligence agencies and the mayor of La Paz.

Barbie’s handler Solinger traveled to the Chilean capital Santiago in May 1966 to officially hire the new man and provide him with “intensive” training. The two men agreed that important information would be disguised as economic news from the lumber industry. Barbie was to note the information on special paper — “leaving a 3 cm (1.1 inch) margin all around, with no punctuation, and with no writing on the centerfold” — and send it to a teacher in Bad Bevensen in northern Germany, who would then forward the letters, unopened, to a post office box in Hamburg.

Barbie was officially classified as a “political source.” The exact content of his reports is not known, however. Perhaps he merely observed developments in Bolivia, or his work may have been focused on the German military, the Bundeswehr. A few weeks after being recruited, he became the Bolivian representative for Merex AG, a Bonn-based company that sold Bundeswehr military surplus materials worldwide on behalf of the BND. According to BND records, Barbie was to notify the Merex people whenever the Bolivians lacked weapons or ammunition.

It is clear that the BND was very satisfied with Barbie’s work. Agent 43118 was described as “intelligent,” “very receptive and adaptable” and “discreet and reliable.”

BND Denied Knowing Barbie’s Identity

After Barbie was identified by the Klarsfelds in 1972, the people at the BND who had been involved with Barbie claimed internally that they had only learned Altmann’s real identity from the press. The administration at the time had apparently “neglected to obtain official information about Altmann, even though this would have been appropriate in light of his past.”

It is highly likely that this version of events was a lie. Even Altmann’s explanation to Holm that he had fled directly from East Germany to Bolivia should have triggered an extensive background search. Indications of that search can be found in the Barbie files, which are clearly incomplete.

Most of all, however, Solinger made notes about Barbie’s past at their first meeting. Based on this information, it was clear that the new agent worked during the war for the Reich Security Head Office, the SS organization that organized the Holocaust. It was also clear that he was being sought by the French for alleged war crimes. It is hard to believe that Barbie did not take this opportunity to reveal his true identity, or that the BND staff did not at least do the relevant research after the fact.

A few intelligence officials who were not in the loop became suspicious when agent V-43118 refused to travel to Germany for training. “Could it be that there is some evidence against him — SS?” one official wrote in a handwritten comment on Sept. 13, 1966. A few weeks later, everyone involved knew that the public prosecutor’s office in Wiesbaden was searching for Barbie on the basis of a preliminary investigation by the Central Office for the Investigation of Nazi Crimes in Ludwigsburg.

Request to East Berlin

At this point, it also became apparent that, in the meantime, Barbie had had a run-in with Günther Motz, the German ambassador in La Paz. Barbie had accused Motz of “putting the interests of German Jews ahead of the interests of the other members of the German colony.”

Through a middleman, he had contacted a propaganda official with the East German communist party, the SED, in East Berlin, with a request to search the East German archives for incriminating information about Motz from the Nazi era. Such actions were “not exactly indicative of an appropriate attitude,” according to the BND files.

In the fall of 1966, the agency decided to part ways with Barbie, “to avoid later complications and difficulties.” It was, it turns out, wishful thinking.

Translated from the German by Christopher Sultan

Read the article here.

Nepal’s Maoists: Surrender is “Undogmatic”

CHITWAN, Nepal — In a major step forward in Nepal’s tortured peace process, Maoist political leaders on Saturday formally relinquished control of their 19,000-member army to a special governmental committee.

At a ceremony held about 110 miles from the capital, Katmandu, Pushpa Kamal Dahal, chairman of the Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) signed a statement with the country’s caretaker interim prime minister, Madhav Kumar Nepal. Then the prime minister raised the national flag over a gathering of former Maoist fighters.

“It is a positive development,” said Samuel Tamrat, a senior United Nations official. “It shows the parties are keen to move forward and take responsibility.”

The unresolved status of the Maoist combatants had been a constant concern since Maoist leaders signed an agreement in 2006 ending their decade-old guerrilla war and allowing the Maoists to form a political party that would participate in writing a new constitution.

But Maoist leaders and Nepal’s other political parties bickered for almost five years over how to reintegrate the fighters, essentially leaving the Maoist army intact and outside the government’s authority.

Their presence has deadlocked the broader effort to write the new constitution. And for the past six months, Nepal has had a caretaker government as the parties have been unable to agree on a prime minister. Even with the handover complete, the terms of how the fighters will be returned to society or blended into security forces are still being negotiated. The government has a deadline to finish that work, choose a new prime minister and complete a constitution by the end of May.

“I want the integration and rehabilitation of all the Maoist combatants to happen as soon as possible,” said one of the fighters, Sarjan Bk, 27. “We have been staying here for more than four years.”

Kiran Chapagain reported from Chitwan, and Jim Yardley from New Delhi.