Native American Genocide

The American Indian Holocaust, known as the “500 year war” and the “World’s Longest Holocaust In The History Of Mankind And Loss Of Human Lives.”

Genocide and Denying It: Why We Are Not Taught that the Natives of the United States and Canada were Exterminated

Death Toll: 95,000,000 to 114,000,000

American Holocaust: D. Stannard (Oxford Press, 1992) – “over 100 million killed” “[Christopher] Columbus personally murdered half a million Natives”

“Hitler’s concept of concentration camps as well as the practicality of genocide owed much, so he claimed, to his studies of English and United States history. He admired the camps for Boer prisoners in South Africa and for the Indians in the wild west; and often praised to his inner circle the efficiency of America’s extermination – by starvation and uneven combat – of the red savages who could not be tamed by captivity.”

— P. 202, “Adolph Hitler” by John Toland

Native Americans have the highest mortality rate of any U.S. minority because of U.S. action and policy. The biggest killers though were smallpox, measles, influenza, whooping cough, diphtheria, typhus, bubonic plague, cholera, and scarlet fever. All imported by the Europeans colonists.

Smallpox was instrumental in killing the American Indians


The term Genocide derives from the Latin (genos=race, tribe; cide=killing) and means literally the killing or murder of an entire tribe or people. The Oxford English Dictionary defines genocide as “the deliberate and systematic extermination of an ethnic or national group” and cites the first usage of the term as R. Lemkin, Axis Rule in Occupied Europe, (1944) p.79. “By ‘genocide’ we mean the destruction of a nation or an ethnic group.”

The U.N. General Assembly adopted this term and defended it in 1946 as “….a denial of the right of existence of entire human groups.” Most people tend to associate genocide with wholesale slaughter of a specific people. However, “the 1994 U.N. Convention on the Punishment and Prevention of the Crime of Genocide, describes genocide beyond outright murder of people as the destruction and extermination of culture.” Article II of the convention lists five categories of activity as genocidal when directed against a specific “national, ethnic, racial, or religious group.”

These categories are:

  • Killing members of the group;
  • Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of group;
  • Deliberately infliction on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part;
  • Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;
  • Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.

Genocide or the deliberate extermination of one ethnic group by another is not new, for example in 1937 the Pequot Indians were exterminated by the Colonists when they burned their villages in Mystic, Connecticut, and then shot all the other people — including women and children — who tried to escape. The United States Government has refused to ratify the U.N. convention on genocide. There are many facets of genocide which have been implemented upon indigenous peoples of North America. The list of American genocidal policies includes: Mass-execution, Biological warfare, Forced Removal from homelands, Incarceration, Indoctrination of non-indigenous values, forced surgical sterilization of native women, Prevention of religious practices, just to name a few.

By mass-execution prior to the arrival of Columbus the land defined as the 48 contiguous states of America numbered in excess of 12 million. Four centuries later, it had been reduced by 95% (237 thousand). How? When Columbus returned in 1493 he brought a force of 17 ships. He began to implement slavery and mass-extermination of the Taino population of the Caribbean. Within three years five million were dead. Fifty years later the Spanish census recorded only 200 living! Las Casas, the primary historian of the Columbian era, writes of numerous accounts of the horrendous acts that the Spanish colonists inflicted upon the indigenous people, which included hanging them en masse, roasting them on spits, hacking their children into pieces to be used as dog food, and the list continues.

This did not end with Columbus’ departure, the European colonies and the newly declared United States continued similar conquests. Massacres occurred across the land such as the Wounded Knee Massacre. Not only was the method of massacre used, other methods for “Indian Removal” and “clearing” included military slaughter of tribal villages, bounties on native scalps, and biological warfare. British agents intentionally gave Tribes blankets that were intentionally contaminated with smallpox. Over 100 thousand died among the Mingo, Delaware, Shawnee and other Ohio River nations. The U.S. army followed suit and used the same method on the Plains tribal populations with similar success.


For a brief periods after the American Revolution, the United States adopted a policy toward American Indians known as the “conquest” theory. In the Treaty of Fort Stansix of 1784, the Iroquois had to cede lands in western New York and Pennsylvania. Those Iroquois living in the United States (many had gone to Canada where the English gave them refuge) rapidly degenerated as a nation during the last decades of the eighteenth century, losing most of their remaining lands and much of their ability to cope. The Shawnees, Miamis, Delawaresm, Ottawans, Wyandots, and Potawatomis watching the decline of the Iroquois formed their own confederacy and informed the United states that the Ohio river was the boundary between their lands and those of the settlers. It was just a matter of time before further hostilities ensued.

"Indian Boarding School" - Cultural Genocide


The Europeans saw themselves as the superior culture bringing civilization to an inferior culture. The colonial world view split reality into popular parts: good and evil, body and spirit, man and nature, head and hear, European and primitive. American Indians spirituality lacks these dualism’s; language expresses the oneness of all things. God is not the transcendent Father but the Mother Earth, the Corn Mother, the Great Spirit who nourishes all It is polytheistic, believing in many gods and many levels of deity. “At the basis of most American Native beliefs is the supernatural was a profound conviction that an invisible force, a powerful spirit, permeated the entire universe and ordered the cycles of birth and death for all living things.” Beyond this belief in a universal spirit, most American Indians attached supernatural qualities to animals, heavenly bodies, the seasons, dead ancestors, the elements, and geologic formations. Their world was infused with the divine – The Sacred Hoop. This was not at all a personal being presiding ominpotently over the salvation or damnation of individual people as the Europeans believed.

For the Europeans such beliefs were pagan. Thus, the conquest was rationalized as a necessary evil that would bestow upon the heathen “Indians” a moral consciousness that would redeem their amorality. The world view which converted bare economic self interest into noble, even moral, motives was a notion of Christianity as the one redemptive religion which demands fealty from all cultures. In this remaking of the American Indians the impetus which drove the conquistador’s invading wars not exploration, but the drive to expand an empire, not discovery of new land, but the drive to accumulate treasure, land and cheap labor.


Culture is the expression of a people’s creativity — everything they make which is distinctively theirs: language, music, art, religion, healing, agriculture, cooking style, the institutions governing social life. To suppress culture is to aim a cannonball at the people’s heart and spirit. Such a conquest is more accomplished than a massacre. “We have seen the colonization materially kills the colonized. It must be added that it kills him spiritually. Colonization distorts relationships, destroys and petrifies institutions, and corrupts….both colonizers and the colonized.”

Strategies of targeting American Indian children for assimilation began with violence. Forts were erected by Jesuits, in which indigenous youths were incarcerated, indoctrinated with non-indigenous Christian values, and forced into manual labor. Schooling provided a crucial tool in changing not only the language but the culture of impressionable young people. In boarding schools students could be immersed in a 24 hours bath of assimilation. “The founder of the Carlisle Indian Industrial School in Pennsylvania , Capt. Richard H. Pratt, observed in 1892 that Carlisle has always planted treason to the tribe and loyalty to the nation at large. More crudely put, the Carlisle philosophy was, “Kill the Indian to save the man.” At the boarding schools children were forbidden to speak their native languages, forced to shed familiar clothing for uniforms, cut their hair and subjected to harsh discipline. Children who had seldom heard an unkind word spoken to them were all too often verbally and physically abused by their white teachers. In short, “there was a full-scale attempt at deracination — the uprooting or destruction of a race and its culture.” A few American Indian children were able to run away, others died of illness and some died of homesickness.

The children, forcibly separated from their parents by soldiers often never saw their families until later in their adulthood, after their value-system and knowledge had been supplanted with colonial thinking. When these children returned from boarding schools they no longer knew their native language, they were strangers in their own world, there was a loss, a void of not belonging in the native world, nor the white man’s world. In the movie “Lakota Women,” these children are referred to as “Apple Children [red on the outside, white on the inside]” they do not know where they fit in, they were unable to assimilate into either culture. This confusion and loss of cultural identity, leads to suicide, drinking and violence. The most destructive aspect of alienation is the loss of power, of control over one’s destiny, over one’s memories, through relationships — past and future.

Jose Noriega’s well-documented historical account of the forced indoctrination of colonial thought into the minds of American Indian children as a means of disrupting the generational transmission of cultural values, clearly demonstrates the cultural genocide employed by the U.S. government as a means of separating the American Indians from their land.


The “Indian Removal” policy was implemented to “clear” land for white settlers. Removal was more than another assault on American Indians’ land titles. Insatiable greed for land remained a primary consideration, but many people now believed that the removal was the only way of saving American Indians from extermination. As long as the American Indians lived in close proximity to non-Native American communities, they would be decimated by disease, alcohol, and poverty. The Indian Removal Act began in 1830. Forced marches at bayonet-point to relocation settlements resulted in high mortality rates. The infamous removal of the Five Civilized Tribes — the Choctaws, Creeks, Chickasaws, Cherokees, and Seminoles — is a dismal page in United States history. By the 1820’s the Cherokees, who had established a written constitution modeled after the United States Constitution, a newspaper, schools, and industries in their settlements, resisted removal. In 1938 the federal troops evicted the Cherokees. Approximately four thousand Cherokees died during the removal process because of poor planning by the United States Government. This exodus to Indian Territory is known as the Trail of Tears. More than one hundred thousand American Indians eventually crossed the Mississippi River under the authority of the Indian Removal Act.


Article II of United Nations General Assembly resolution, 1946: In the present Convention, genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group, as such: (d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group. In the mid-1970s a Choctaw-Tsalagi Indian Health Services doctor was approached by a 26-year-old American Indian woman who desired a “wonb transplant.” She had been sterilized when she was 20 at the Indian Health Service hospital in Claremont, Oklahoma. It was discoverd that 75 percent of the Claremont sterilizations were non-therapeutic, that women American Indians were being prompted to sign sterilization forms they didn’t understand, that they were being told the operations were reversible, and that some women were even being asked to sign sterilization papers while they had yet to come out of birthing sedation.

Common Sense magazine reported that the Indian Health Service “was sterilizing 3,000 Indian women per year, 4 to 6 percent of the child bearing population…Dr. R. T. Ravenholt, [then] director of the federal government’s Office of Population, later confirmed that ‘surgical sterilization has become increasingly important in recent years as one of the advanced methods of fertility management’.” Ravenholt’s response to these inquires “told the population Association of America in St. Louis that the critics were ‘a really radical extremist group lashing out at a responsible program so that revolution would occur’.”

From the beginning of European control there has been an unrelenting drive to commit genocide over another culture. The American Indians were a majority so the Europeans called them an enemy. One of the major facts the United States Government has failed to understand is that the spiritual aspect of life is inseparable from the economic and the political aspects. The loss of tradition and memory will be the loss of positive sense of self. Those reared in traditional American Native societies are inclined to relate events and experiences to one another, they do not organize perceptions or external events in terms of dualities or priorities. This egalitarianism is reflected in the structure of American Indian literature, which does not rely on conflict, crises, and resolution for organization.


American Indians felt comfortable with the environment, close to the moods and rhythms of nature, in time with the living planet. Europeans were quite different, viewing the earth itself as lifeless and inorganic, subject to any kind of manipulation or alteration. Europeans tended to be alienated from nature and came to the New World to use the wilderness, to conquer and exploit its natural wealth for private gain.

But for American Indians, the environment was sacred, possessing a cosmic significance equal to its material riches. The earth was sacred — a haven for all forms of life — and it had to be protected, nourished, and even worshipped. Chief Smoholla of the Wanapun tribe illustrated American Native reverence for the earth when he said in 1885:

“God said he was the father of and earth was the mankind; that nature was the law; that the animals, and fish and plants beyond nature, and that man only was sinful.

You ask me to plow the ground! Shall I take a knife and tear my mother’s bosom?

Then when I die she will not take me to her bosom to rest.

You ask me to dig for stone! Shall I dig under her skin for her bones?

Then When I die I cannot enter her body to be born again.

You ask me to cut grass And make hay and sell it, and be rich like white men!

But how dare I cut off my mother’s hair?

American Indians’ agricultural and medical wisdom had been ignored by the European invaders. In their rush to control the land and people much has passed them by and much has been destroyed. Sadly, what seems to have been almost totally ignored is the American Indians’ knowledge that the Earth is their mother. Because their mother continues to give us life we must care for and respect her. This was a ecological view of the earth.

“There are tens of millions of people around the world who, within only the last few centuries — and some cases only the last few years — have seen their successful societies brutally assaulted by ugly destructive forces. Some American Indian societies have been obliterated. Some peoples have suffered separation from the source of their survival, wisdom, power, and identity: their lands. Some have fallen from the pressure, compromised, moved to urban landscapes, and disappeared, but millions of American Indians, including tens of thousands here in the United States, have gained strength in the face of all their adversity. Their strength is rooted in the earth and deserves to succeed.”

Books used for references and internet addresses:

  1. Mander, Jerry, In the Absence of the Sacred: The Failure of Technology and the Survival of the Indian Nations,” Sierra Club Books, San Francisco, 1992: 349.
  2. Mankiller, Wilma and Wallis, M., A Chief and Her People, St. Martin’s Press, New York, 1993: 8.
  3. Memi, Albert, The Colonizer and the Colonized, Boston: Beacon Press, 1965: 151.
  4. Olson, James and Wilson, R., Native American, In the Twentieth Century, University Press, 1988, 11.
  5. The Reader’s Digest Association, Inc., Through Indian Eyes, Pleasantville, New York/Montreal, 1995: 338.
  6. Susan Brill, Bradley U. ( Discussion group regarding the genocide of Native peoples.
  9. Federal Indian Policy
  10. Trail of Tears

[…] The National Council of Churches adopted a resolution branding this event [the landing of Columbus]  “an invasion” that resulted in the “slavery and genocide of native people.” In a widely read book, The Conquest of Paradise (1990), Kirkpatrick Sale charged the English and their American successors with pursuing a policy of extermination that had continued unabated for four centuries. Later works have followed suit. In the 1999 Encyclopedia of Genocide, edited by the scholar Israel Charny, an article by Ward Churchill argues that extermination was the “express objective” of the U.S. government. To the Cambodia expert Ben Kiernan, similarly, genocide is the “only appropriate way” to describe how white settlers treated the Indians. (Source)

The North American Indian Holocaust

Kahentinetha Horn

The “final solution” of the North American Indian problem was the model for the subsequent Jewish holocaust and South African apartheid

Why is the biggest holocaust in all humanity being hidden from history? Is it because it lasted so long that it has become a habit? It’s been well documented that the killing of Indigenous people in the Western Hemisphere since the beginning of colonization has been estimated at 120 million. Yet nobody wants to speak about it.

Today historians, anthropologists and archaeologists are revealing that information on this holocaust is being deliberately eliminated from the knowledge base and consciousness of North Americans and the world. A completely false picture is being painted of our people as suffering from social ills of our own making.

It could be argued that the loss of 120 million from 1500 to 1800 isn’t the same as the loss of 6 million people during World War II. Can 6 million in 1945 be compared to 1 million in 1500?

School children are still being taught that large areas of North America are uninhabited as if this land belongs to no one and never did. The role of our ancestors as caretakers is constantly and habitually overlooked by colonial society.

Before the arrival of Europeans, cities and towns here were flourishing. Mexico City had a larger population than any city in Europe. The people were healthy and well-fed. The first Europeans were amazed. The agricultural products developed by the Indigenous people transformed human nutrition internationally.

The North American Indian holocaust was studied by South Africa for their apartheid program and by Hitler for his genocide of the Jews during World War II. Hitler commented that he admired the great job Americans had done in taking care of the Indian problem. The policies used to kill us off was so successful that people today generally assume that our population was low. Hitler told a past US President when he remarked about their maltreatment of the Jewish people, he mind your own business. You’re the worst.

Where are the monuments? Where are the memorial ceremonies? Why is it being concealed? The survivors of the WWII holocaust have not yet died and already there is a movement afoot to forget what happened.

Unlike post-war Germany, North Americans refuse to acknowledge this genocide. Almost one and a quarter million Kanien’ke:haka (Mohawk) were killed off leaving us only a few thousand survivors.

North Americans do not want to reveal that there was and still is a systematic plan to destroy most of the native people by outright murder by bounty hunters and land grabbers, disease through distributing small pox infested blankets, relocation, theft of children who were placed in concentration camps called “residential schools” and assimilation.

As with the Jews, they could not have accomplished this without their collaborators who they trained to serve their genocidal system through their “re-education camps”.

The policy changed from outright slaughter to killing the Indian inside. Governments, army, police, church, corporations, doctors, judges and common people were complicit in this killing machine. An elaborate campaign has covered up this genocide which was engineered at the highest levels of power in the United States and Canada. This cover up continues to this day. When they killed off all the Indians, they brought in Blacks to be their labourers.

In the residential schools many eye witnesses have recently come forward to describe the atrocities. They called these places “death camps” where, according to government records, nearly half of all these innocent Indigenous children died or disappeared as if they never existed. In the 1920’s when Dr. Bryce was alarmed by the high death rate of children in residential schools, his report was suppressed.

"Indian boarding school" - cultural genocide

The term “Final Solution” was not coined by the Nazis. It was Indian Affairs Superintendent, Duncan Campbell Scott, Canada’s Adolph Eichmann, who in April 1910 plotted out the planned murder to take care of the “Indian problem”.

“It is readily acknowledged that Indian children lose their natural resistance to illness by habitating so closely in these schools, and that they die at a much higher rate than in their villages. But this alone does not justify a change in the policy of this Department, which is geared towards the final solution of our Indian Problem”. (DIA Archives, RG 10 series).

In the 1930’s he brought German doctors over here to do medical experiments on our children. According to the study the majority of the lives of these children was extinguished. School children are taught his poetry with no mention of his role as the butcher of the Indian people.

Those who carried out this annihilation of our people were protected so they could declare full-scale war on us. North Americans as heirs of the fruits of this murderous system have blood on their hands. If people are sincere about preventing holocausts they must remember it. History must be told as it really happened in all its tragic details.

It’s not good enough to just remember the holocaust that took place during the lifetime of some of the survivors. We have to remember the larger holocaust. Isn’t it time to uncover the truth and make the perpetrators face up to this?

In the west there are a whole series of Eichmanns. General Amherst ordered the distribution of small pox infested blankets to kill of our people. But his name is shamelessly preserved in the names of towns and streets. George Washington is called the “village burner” in Mohawk because of all the villages he ordered burnt. Villages would be surrounded. As the people came running out, they would be shot, stabbed, women, children and elders alike. In one campaign alone “hundreds of thousand died, from New York across Pennsylvania, West Virgina and into Ohio”. His name graces the capital of the United States.

The smell of death in their own backyard does not seem to bother North Americans. This is obscene.

By Kahentinetha Horn, MNN Mohawk Nation News,
First published in Akwesasne Phoenix, Jan. 30, 2005 issue

"Indian Boarding School"

Excerpted from Rachel’s Environment & Health Weekly newsletter, #671, “Columbus Day, 1999,” by Peter Montague (National Writers Union UAW Local 1981/AFL-CIO), with added section titles and notes where indicated.

The Beginnings of the Native Genocide

Columbus made four voyages to the New World. [1] The initial voyage reveals several important things about the man. First, he had genuine courage because few ship’s captains had ever pointed their prow toward the open ocean, the complete unknown. Secondly, from numerous of his letters and reports we learn that his overarching goal was to seize wealth that belonged to others, even his own men, by whatever means necessary.

Columbus’s Spanish royal sponsors (Ferdinand and Isabella) had promised a lifetime pension to the first man who sighted land. A few hours after midnight on October 12, 1492, Juan Rodriguez Bermeo, a lookout on the Pinta, cried out — in the bright moonlight, he had spied land ahead. Most likely Bermeo was seeing the white beaches of Watling Island in the Bahamas.

As they waited impatiently for dawn, Columbus let it be known that he had spotted land several hours before Bermeo. According to Columbus’s journal of that voyage, his ships were, at the time, traveling 10 miles per hour. To have spotted land several hours before Bermeo, Columbus would have had to see more than 30 miles over the horizon, a physical impossibility. Nevertheless Columbus took the lifetime pension for himself. [1,2]

Columbus installed himself as Governor of the Caribbean islands, with headquarters on Hispaniola (the large island now shared by Haiti and the Dominican Republic). He described the people, the Arawaks (called by some the Tainos) this way:

“The people of this island and of all the other islands which I have found and seen, or have not seen, all go naked, men and women, as their mothers bore them, except that some women cover one place only with the leaf of a plant or with a net of cotton which they make for that purpose.

“They have no iron or steel or weapons, nor are they capable of using them, although they are well-built people of handsome stature, because they are wondrous timid…. [T]hey are so artless and free with all they possess, that no one would believe it without having seen it.

“Of anything they have, if you ask them for it, they never say no; rather they invite the person to share it, and show as much love as if they were giving their hearts; and whether the thing be of value or of small price, at once they are content with whatever little thing of whatever kind may be given to them.” [3, pg.63; 1, pg.118]

Added note:
In an ominous foreshadowing of the horrors to come, Columbus also wrote in his journal:

“I could conquer the whole of them with fifty men, and govern them as I pleased.”

After Columbus had surveyed the Caribbean region, he returned to Spain to prepare his invasion of the Americas. From accounts of his second voyage, we can begin to understand what the New World represented to Columbus and his men — it offered them life without limits, unbridled freedom.

Columbus took the title “Admiral of the Ocean Sea” and proceeded to unleash a reign of terror unlike anything seen before or since. When he was finished, eight million Arawaks — virtually the entire native population of Hispaniola — had been exterminated by torture, murder, forced labor, starvation, disease and despair. [3, pg.x]

A Spanish missionary, Bartolome de las Casas, described first-hand how the Spaniards terrorized the natives. [4] Las Casas gives numerous eye-witness accounts of repeated mass murder and routine sadistic torture.

As Barry Lopez has accurately summarized it,

One day, in front of Las Casas, the Spanish dismembered, beheaded, or raped 3000 people.

‘Such inhumanities and barbarisms were committed in my sight,’ he says, ‘as no age can parallel….’

The Spanish cut off the legs of children who ran from them. They poured people full of boiling soap. They made bets as to who, with one sweep of his sword, could cut a person in half. They loosed dogs that ‘devoured an Indian like a hog, at first sight, in less than a moment.’ They used nursing infants for dog food.” [2, pg.4]

This was not occasional violence — it was a systematic, prolonged campaign of brutality and sadism, a policy of torture, mass murder, slavery and forced labor that continued for CENTURIES.

The destruction of the Indians of the Americas was, far and away, the most massive act of genocide in the history of the world,” writes historian David E. Stannard. [3, pg.x]

Eventually more than 100 million natives fell under European rule. Their extermination would follow. As the natives died out, they were replaced by slaves brought from Africa.

To make a long story short, Columbus established a pattern that held for five centuries — a “ruthless, angry search for wealth,” as Barry Lopez describes it.

“It set a tone in the Americas. The quest for personal possessions was to be, from the outset, a series of raids, irresponsible and criminal, a spree, in which an end to it — the slaves, the timber, the pearls, the fur, the precious ores, and, later, arable land, coal, oil, and iron ore — was never visible, in which an end to it had no meaning.”

Indeed, there WAS no end to it, no limit.

As Hans Koning has observed,

“There was no real ending to the conquest of Latin America. It continued in remote forests and on far mountainsides. It is still going on in our day when miners and ranchers invade land belonging to the Amazon Indians and armed thugs occupy Indian villages in the backwoods of Central America.” [6, pg.46]

In the 1980s, under Presidents Ronald Reagan and George Bush, the U.S. government knowingly gave direct aid to genocidal campaigns that murdered tens of thousands Mayan Indian people in Guatemala, El Salvador and elsewhere. [7]

The pattern holds.

Added note:
And still, in 2003, the genocide continues in Colombia, El Salvador and Guatemala.

Continuing the gruesome tradition of the 1980s, which also terrorized the people of Nicaragua, U.S. government-funded fascist paramilitaries mass-murder Indians in Central and South America to this day. The bestial carnage committed by Uncle Sham’s proxy armies includes countless disappearances, epidemic rape and torture. The Colombian paramilitaries have even made their own gruesome addition to the list of horrors: public beheadings.

This latest stage of the American Indian holocaust is enthusiastically supported by the cocaine-smuggling CIA, the Pentagon and all the rest of the United States Corporate Mafia Government.

The English/American Genocide

Unfortunately, Columbus and the Spaniards were not unique. They conquered Mexico and what is now the Southwestern U.S., with forays into Florida, the Carolinas, even into Virginia. From Virginia northward, the land had been taken by the English who, if anything, had even less tolerance for the indigenous people.

As Hans Koning says,

“From the beginning, the Spaniards saw the native Americans as natural slaves, beasts of burden, part of the loot. When working them to death was more economical than treating them somewhat humanely, they worked them to death.

“The English, on the other hand, had no use for the native peoples. They saw them as devil worshippers, savages who were beyond salvation by the church, and exterminating them increasingly became accepted policy.” [6, pg.14]

The British arrived in Jamestown in 1607. By 1610 the intentional extermination of the native population was well along. As David E. Stannard has written,

“Hundreds of Indians were killed in skirmish after skirmish. Other hundreds were killed in successful plots of mass poisoning. They were hunted down by dogs, ‘blood-Hounds to draw after them, and Mastives [mastiffs] to seize them.’

“Their canoes and fishing weirs were smashed, their villages and agricultural fields burned to the ground. Indian peace offers were accepted by the English only until their prisoners were returned; then, having lulled the natives into false security, the colonists returned to the attack.

“It was the colonists’ expressed desire that the Indians be exterminated, rooted ‘out from being longer a people upon the face of the Earth.’ In a single raid the settlers destroyed corn sufficient to feed four thousand people for a year.

“Starvation and the massacre of non-combatants was becoming the preferred British approach to dealing with the natives.” [3, pg.106]

In Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New Jersey extermination was officially promoted by a “scalp bounty” on dead Indians.

“Indeed, in many areas it [murdering Indians] became an outright business,” writes historian Ward Churchill. [5, pg.182]

Indians were defined as subhumans, lower than animals. George Washington compared them to wolves, “beasts of prey” and called for their total destruction. [3, pgs.119-120]

Andrew Jackson — whose [innocent-looking] portrait appears on the U.S. $20 bill today — in 1814:

“supervised the mutilation of 800 or more Creek Indian corpses — the bodies of men, women and children that [his troops] had massacred — cutting off their noses to count and preserve a record of the dead, slicing long strips of flesh from their bodies to tan and turn into bridle reins.” [5, pg.186]

The English policy of extermination — another name for genocide — grew more insistent as settlers pushed westward:

In 1851 the Governor of California officially called for the extermination of the Indians in his state. [3, pg.144]

On March 24, 1863, the Rocky Mountain News in Denver ran an editorial titled, “Exterminate Them.”

On April 2, 1863, the Santa Fe New Mexican advocated “extermination of the Indians.” [5, pg.228]

In 1867, General William Tecumseh Sherman said:

“We must act with vindictive earnestness against the [Lakotas, known to whites as the Sioux] even to their extermination, men, women and children.” [5, pg.240]

In 1891, Frank L. Baum (gentle author of “The Wizard Of Oz”) wrote in the Aberdeen Saturday Pioneer (Kansas) that the army should “finish the job” by the “total annihilation” of the few remaining Indians.

The U.S. did not follow through on Baum’s macabre demand, for there really was no need. By then the native population had been reduced to 2.5% of its original numbers and 97.5% of the aboriginal land base had been expropriated and renamed “The land of the free and the home of the brave.”

Hundreds upon hundreds of native tribes with unique languages, learning, customs, and cultures had simply been erased from the face of the earth, most often without even the pretense of justice or law.

Today we can see the remnant cultural arrogance of Christopher Columbus and Captain John Smith shadowed in the cult of the “global free market” which aims to eradicate indigenous cultures and traditions world-wide, to force all peoples to adopt the ways of the U.S.

Today’s globalist “Free Trade” is merely yesterday’s “Manifest Destiny” writ large.

But as Barry Lopez says,

“This violent corruption needn’t define us…. We can say, yes, this happened, and we are ashamed. We repudiate the greed. We recognize and condemn the evil. And we see how the harm has been perpetuated. But, five hundred years later, we intend to mean something else in the world.”

If we chose, we could set limits on ourselves for once. We could declare enough is enough.


1. J.M. Cohen, editor, The Four Voyages of Christopher Columbus
London: Penguin Books, 1969; ISBN 0-14-044217-0

2. Barry Lopez, The Rediscovery of North America
Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky, 1990; ISBN 0-8131-1742-9

3. David E. Stannard, American Holocaust: Columbus and the Conquest of the New World
New York: Oxford University Press, 1992; ISBN 0-19-507581-1

4. Bartolome de las Casas, The Devastation of the Indies: A Brief Account
translated by Herma Briffault
Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992; ISBN 0-8018-4430-4

5. Ward Churchill, A Little Matter of Genocide: Holocaust and Denial in the Americas, 1492 to the Present
San Francisco: City Lights Books, 1997; ISBN 0-87286-323-9

6. Hans Koning, The Conquest of America: How The Indian Nations Lost Their Continent
New York: Monthly Review Press, 1993, pg. 46.; ISBN 0-85345-876-6

7. For example, see Mireya Navarro, “Guatemalan Army Waged ‘Genocide,’ New Report Finds,”
NEW YORK TIMES, February 26, 1999, pg. unknown.
The NY Times described “torture, kidnapping and execution of thousands of civilians” — most of them Mayan Indians — a campaign to which the U.S. government contributed “money and training.”


The following narrative is by Arthur Barlowe (1584, p.108), describing American Indians.

‘We found the people most gentle loving and faithful, void of all guile and treason, and such as lived after the manner of the Golden Age,…, a more kind and loving people there can not be found in the world.’

His description well fits our categories of Eastern cognitive styles: affiliative, personal, understanding, non-discursive. With predominance of the affective-cognitive belief system making one to marry for love, as contrasted with the cognitive-affective system typical of mental calculations prior to bestowing affection on the ‘loved one.’ Closeness associated with the tactile contact mode. Suspended critical appraisal and present time orientation, acting as limiting factors in carrying hatred ‘beyond the grave.’

General Philip H. Sheridan was the commander of the United States forces […] he had plans of exterminating the buffalo. He thought this would kill the Plains Indians. “Kill the buffalo and you kill the Indians” he said.

David Stannard in his scholarly American Holocaust (1992, p. 232) writes:

From the earliest days of settlement, British men in the colonies from the Carolinas to New England rarely engaged in sexual relations with the Indians, even during those times when there were few if any English women available. Such encounters were viewed as a “horrid crime” and legislation was passed that “banished forever” such mixed race couples, referring to their offspring in animalistic terms.

The estimates of the number of victims of the American Holocaust differ. However, these differences show remarkable similarity with the controversy surrounding the Holocaust deniers who do not deny that Holocaust occurred, but try to diminish its extent. Thus, for instance, R. J. Rummel in his 1994 book Death by Government estimates the number of victims of the centuries of European colonization as low as 2 million.

Among the contemporary Holocaust deniers is also Gary North, who in his Political Polytheism (1989, pp. 257-258) asserts:

Liberals have adopted the phrase “native Americans” in recent years. They never, ever say “American natives,” since this is only one step away from “American savages,” which is precisely what most of those demon-worshipping, land-polluting people were. This was one of the great sins in American life, they say: “the stealing of Indian lands”. That a million savages had a legitimate legal claim on the whole of North America north of Mexico is the unstated assumption of such critics. They never ask the most pertinent question:

Was the advent of the Europeans in North America a righteous historical judgment of God against the Indians?

The European colonization of the Americas forever changed the lives and cultures of the Native Americans. In the 15th to 19th centuries, their populations were ravaged, by the privations of displacement, by disease, and in many cases by warfare with European groups and enslavement by them. The first Native American group encountered by Columbus, the 250,000 Arawaks of Haiti, were enslaved. Only 500 survived by the year 1550, and the group was extinct before 1650.

Europeans also brought diseases against which the Native Americans had no immunity. Chicken pox and measles, though common and rarely fatal among Europeans, often proved fatal to Native Americans, and more dangerous diseases such as smallpox were especially deadly to Native American populations. It is difficult to estimate the total percentage of the Native American population killed by these diseases.

Epidemics often immediately followed European exploration, sometimes destroying entire villages. Some historians estimate that up to 80% of some Native populations may have died due to European diseases.

Wounded Knee Massacre

Sacheen Littlefeather

On March 27, 1973, a young woman took the stage at the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in Los Angeles, California, to decline Marlon Brando’s Best Actor Oscar. She said that Marlon Brando cannot accept this award because of the treatment of American Indians by the film industry and the recent happenings at Wounded Knee.

Brando had written a fifteen-page speech to be given at the awards by Cruz, but when the producer met her backstage, he threatened to physically remove her or have her arrested if she spoke on stage for more than 45 seconds. The speech she read contained the lines:

Hello. My name is Sasheen Littlefeather. I’m Apache and I am president of the National Native American Affirmative Image Committee.

I’m representing Marlon Brando this evening, and he has asked me to tell you in a very long speech which I cannot share with you presently, because of time, but I will be glad to share with the press afterwards, that he very regretfully cannot accept this very generous award.


What kind of moral schizophrenia is it that allows us to shout at the top of our national voice for all the world to hear that we live up to our commitment when every page of history and when all the thirsty, starving, humiliating days and nights of the last 100 years in the lives of the American Indian contradict that voice?

In his autobiography Songs my Mother Told Me (1994, pp. 380-402) Marlon Brando, devotes several pages to the genocide of the American Indians, excerpted as follows:

After their lands were stolen from them, the ragged survivors were herded onto reservations and the government sent out missionaries who tried to force the Indians to become Christians. After I became interested in American Indians, I discovered that many people don’t even regard them as human beings. It has been that way since the beginning.

Cotton Mather compared them to Satan and called it God’s work – and God’s will – to slaughter the heathen savages who stood in the way of Christianity.

As he aimed his howitzers on an encampment of unarmed Indians at Sand Creek, Colorado, in 1864, an army colonel named John Chivington, who had once said that thelives of Indian children should not be spared because “nits make lice,” told his officers: “I have come to kill Indians, and believe it is right and honorable to use any means under God’s heaven to kill Indians.” Hundreds of Indian women, children, and old men were slaughtered in the Sand Creek massacre. One officer who was present said later, “Women and children were killed and scalped, children shot at their mother’s breasts, and all the bodies mutilated in the most horrible manner. The dead bodies of females were profaned in such a manner that the recital is sickening.

The troopers cut off the vulvas of Indian women, stretched them over their saddle horns, then decorated their hatbands with them; some used the skin of brave’s scrotums and the breasts of Indian women as tobacco pouches, then showed off these trophies, together with the noses and ears of some of the Indians they had massacred, at the Denver Opera House.

Alcohol-Attributable Deaths and Years of Potential Life Lost Among American Indians and Alaska Natives — United States, 2001–2005

Excessive alcohol consumption is a leading preventable cause of death in the United States (1) and has substantial public health impact on American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations (2). To estimate the average annual number of alcohol-attributable deaths (AADs) and years of potential life lost (YPLLs) among AI/ANs in the United States, CDC analyzed 2001–2005 data (the most recent data available), using death certificate data and CDC Alcohol-Related Disease Impact (ARDI) software.* This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that AADs accounted for 11.7% of all AI/AN deaths, that the age-adjusted AAD rate for AI/ANs was approximately twice that of the U.S. general population, and that AI/ANs lose 6.4 more years of potential life per AAD compared with persons in the U.S. general population (36.3 versus 29.9 years). These findings underscore the importance of implementing effective population-based interventions to prevent excessive alcohol consumption and to reduce alcohol-attributable morbidity and mortality among AI/ANs.

ARDI estimates AADs and YPLLs resulting from excessive alcohol consumption by using multiple data sources and methods.† AADs are generated by multiplying the number of sex- and cause-specific deaths (e.g., liver cancer) by the sex- and cause-specific alcohol-attributable fraction (AAF) (i.e., the proportion of deaths attributable to excessive alcohol consumption). For deaths that are, by definition, 100% attributable to excessive alcohol consumption (e.g., alcoholic liver disease), the total number of AADs equals the total number of deaths. For deaths that are <100% attributable to alcohol, ARDI uses either direct or indirect AAF estimates to generate the total number of AADs. Direct AAF estimates typically come from studies that have assessed the proportion of persons dying from a particular condition (e.g., injuries) at or above a specified blood alcohol concentration (e.g., 0.10 g/dL) or from follow-up studies that have assessed alcohol use of the decedents, based on medical record review and interviews with next-of-kin. Indirect AAF estimates are calculated from pooled risk estimates obtained from meta-analyses of mostly chronic conditions, examining the relationship between various alcohol-related health outcomes (e.g., liver cancer) and the population-based prevalence of alcohol use at consumption levels (i.e., low, medium, or high).

For this analysis, death certificate data for 2001–2005 were used to determine the average annual number of deaths from alcohol-related causes for all AI/ANs in the United States and for the U.S. population as a whole. Population-specific, direct AAF estimates for motor vehicle traffic crashes were obtained from the Fatality Analysis and Reporting System§ by averaging 2001–2005 data for AI/ANs and the U.S. population. Population-based prevalence estimates of alcohol consumption were obtained by averaging 2001–2005 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System¶ and were used to calculate all indirect AAFs. AADs were analyzed by cause and stratified by sex and by age, using standard 5-year age groupings. YPLLs were generated by multiplying the age- and sex-specific AADs by the corresponding life expectancies. Death and life expectancy data were obtained from the National Vital Statistics System.** Death records missing data on decedent age or sex were excluded from this analysis. Bridged-race population estimates from the U.S. Census were used to calculate death rates. Death rates were directly age adjusted to the standard 2000 U.S. population using the age groups 0–19, 20–34, 35–49, 50–64, and >65 years.

During 2001–2005, an average of 1,514 AADs occurred annually among AI/ANs, accounting for 11.7% of all deaths in this population (Table). Overall, 771 (50.9%) of average annual AADs resulted from acute causes, and 743 (49.1%) from chronic causes. The leading acute cause of death was motor-vehicle traffic crashes (417 AADs), and the leading chronic cause was alcoholic liver disease (381). The crude AAD rate among AI/ANs was 49.1 per 100,000 population (25.0 for acute causes and 24.1 for chronic causes). Of all YPLLs, 60.3% resulted from acute conditions, and 39.7% resulted from chronic conditions. The leading acute cause of YPLLs was motor-vehicle traffic crashes (34.4% of YPLLs), and the leading chronic cause was alcoholic liver disease (21.2%).

Overall, 68.3% of AAD decedents among AI/ANs were men, and more AADs occurred among men than women in all age groups (Figure 1); 65.9% of AADs were among persons aged <50 years, and 6.9% were among persons aged <20 years. Of the YPLLs, 68.3% were among those aged 20–49 years.

By Indian Health Service statistical region, the greatest number of AADs occurred in the Northern Plains (497 AADs), South West (315), and Pacific Coast (230) regions, and the fewest AADs occurred in Alaska (86) (Figure 2). Age-adjusted AAD rates were highest in the Northern Plains (95.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 86.5–103.9), Alaska (92.6; CI = 72.4–112.8), and the South West (80.2; CI = 70.8–89.6), and were approximately four to five times higher than the rate in the East (19.2; CI = 15.8–22.6).

Age-adjusted AAD rates and the relative contributions of AADs to total deaths and total YPLLs were substantially higher for AI/ANs compared with the U.S. general population. The age-adjusted AAD rate per 100,000 for AI/ANs was 55.0 (CI = 52.1–57.9) versus 26.9 (CI = 26.7–27.1) for the U.S. general population. Furthermore, AADs accounted for 11.7% of total deaths among AI/AN versus 3.3% for the U.S. general population, and alcohol-attributable YPLLs accounted for 17.3% of total YPLLs for AI/ANs and 6.3% of total YPLLs for the U.S. general population. The average number of YPLLs per AAD also was higher for AI/ANs compared with the U.S. general population (36.3 years versus 29.9 years, respectively).

Reported by: TS Naimi, MD, Zuni Public Health Svc Hospital; N Cobb, MD, Div of Epidemiology; D Boyd, MDCM, National Trauma Systems, Indian Health Svc. DW Jarman, DVM, Preventive Medicine Residency and Fellowship Program; R Brewer, MD, DE Nelson, MD, J Holt, PhD, Div of Adult and Community Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion; D Espey, MD, Div of Cancer Prevention and Control, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion; P Snesrud, Office of Minority Health and Health Disparities; P Chavez, PhD, EIS Officer, CDC.

Editorial Note:

This is the first national report of AADs and YPLLs among AI/ANs; the results demonstrate that excessive alcohol consumption is a leading cause of preventable death and years of lost life in this population. During 2001–2005, AI/ANs were more than twice as likely to die from alcohol-related causes, compared with the U.S. general population; 11.7% of AI/AN deaths were attributed to alcohol. These findings are consistent with those of previous studies (4,5) and might help account for the high rates of injury-related death (e.g., motor-vehicle traffic crashes) that have been observed in this population. The finding that AAD rates vary by region demonstrates that alcohol does not impact all AI/AN communities to the same extent. AI/ANs in specific regions (e.g., Northern Plains) have lower life expectancies; this is likely attributable, in part, to deaths from alcohol-attributable conditions (6).

To further address alcohol-attributable mortality among AI/ANs will require concerted action by multiple organizations and groups, including AI/AN communities, towns on nonreservation lands within and surrounding AI/AN communities, and national, state, and local health agencies. Bans on the sale and possession of alcoholic beverages on certain Indian reservations have been shown to reduce consumption and related harms (5), although the efficacy of such policies is influenced by access to alcohol in surrounding communities (7). Culturally appropriate clinical interventions for reducing excessive drinking (e.g., screening and counseling for excessive alcohol consumption and treatment for alcohol dependence) should be widely implemented among AI/ANs (7). In addition, tribal court systems, which deal with large numbers of alcohol-related crimes, should be better integrated with the health-care system and substance-abuse treatment programs.

The findings in this report are subject to at least four limitations. First, some AI/ANs might have been misclassified by race on death certificates, which would underestimate the total number of AI/AN deaths (8). In a 1996 Indian Health Service study, racial misclassification on death certificates of American Indians ranged from 1.2% in Arizona to 28.0% in Oklahoma and 30.4% in California (8). Second, this study did not use race-specific AAFs for most conditions, which might result in AAD underestimates for certain conditions (e.g., homicide and suicide) for which the AAFs are thought to be higher among AI/ANs (4). Third, ARDI does not estimate AADs for several conditions (e.g., tuberculosis, pneumonia, hepatitis C, and colon cancer) for which alcohol is believed to be an important risk factor but for which suitable pooled risk estimates are not available. Finally, bridged-race census estimates used in this report are based on multiple race categories; use of denominators based on other race categorization methods (e.g., 2000 U.S. Census data or tribal census data) would result in higher rates than reported.

Indian Health Service has initiated an alcohol screening and brief counseling intervention program to help reduce excessive alcohol consumption and related harms among AI/ANs in trauma settings. In addition, effective population-based interventions should be implemented to reduce excessive alcohol consumption in AI/AN populations. These include reducing alcohol availability by limiting outlet density, enforcing 21 years as the minimum legal drinking age (9), increasing alcohol excise taxes, and enforcing laws prohibiting sales to underage or already intoxicated persons, particularly in communities bordering reservations (10). Future efforts should explore regional differences in AADs and evaluate other intervention strategies for reducing alcohol-attributable mortality among AI/AN populations.


This report is based, in part, on data contributed by T Lindsey, National Center for Statistics and Analysis, National Highway Traffic Safety Admin, US Dept of Transportation; M Zack, Div of Adult and Community Health, National Center for Chronic Disease and Public Health Promotion; and C Rothwell and D Hoyert, National Center for Health Statistics, CDC.


1) Mokdad AH, Marks JS, Stroup DF, Gerberding JL. Actual causes of death in the United States, 2000. JAMA 2004;291:1238–45.

2) May AP. The epidemiology of alcohol abuse among American Indians: the mythical and real properties. The IHS Primary Care Provider 1995;20:37–56.

3) Smith GS, Branas CC, Miller TR. Fatal nontraffic injuries involving alcohol: a metaanalysis. Ann Emerg Med 1999;33:659–68.

4) May PA, Van Winkle NW, Williams MB, McFeeley PJ, DeBruyn LM, Serna P. Alcohol and suicide death among American Indians of New Mexico: 1980–1998. Suicide Life Threat Behav 2002;32:240–55.

5) Landen MG, Beller M, Funk E, Propst M, Middaugh J, Moolenaar RL. Alcohol-related injury death and alcohol availability in remote Alaska. JAMA 1997;278:1755–8.

6) Murray CJ, Kulkarni SC, Michaud C, et al. Eight Americas: investigating mortality disparities across races, counties, and race-counties in the United States. PLoS Med 2006;3:e260.

7) Guthrie P. Gallup, New Mexico: on the road to recovery. In: Streicker J, ed. Case histories in alcohol policy. San Francisco, CA: Trauma Foundation; 2000.

8) Indian Health Service. Adjusting for miscoding of Indian race on state death certificates. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Indian Health Service; 1996.

9) Task Force on Community Preventive Services. Excessive alcohol consumption. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC. Available at

10) Babor T, Caetano R, Casswell S, et al. Alcohol: no ordinary commodity. A summary of the book. Addiction 2003;98:1343–50.

* Available at

† Available at

§ Available at

¶ Available at

** Available at

Figure 1

Figure 2


Native Resistance Chronology

Top left to bottom right: Crazy Horse, Emiliano Zapata, Geronimo, Chief Pontiac, Tecumseh, Túpac Amaru, Enriquillo, Chief Joseph, Túpac Amaru II, Quanah Parker, Cuauhtémoc, Sitting Bull

“One does not sell the earth upon which the people walk.” – Tashunka Witko (Crazy Horse)

Indigenous Resistance, 1960s-Present

Since the invasion of our territories began in 1492 our people have had to mobilize to defend our sovereignty. Indigenous Resistance has taken on many forms, and has revealed itself through the Pontiac Rebellion, Battle of Little Bighorn,The Ghost Dance, Riel Rebellion, American Indian Movement, Oka Crisis, the Zapitista Movement, Native Youth Movement etc.

However, when most settlers think back to the conquest of the territory that now makes the United States and Canada, most of them think that the end of the so-called “Indian Wars” as the cap of it, officially happening sometime around 1890. In that year some 300 unarmed Lakota men, women & children were massacred at Wounded Knee, South Dakota by the armed forces of the United States.

From this period until the 1950s, Native peoples were largely pacified & controlled by the colonial settler states. Native children were stolen from their families and thrown in schools in an act of genocide. Their cultures, languages and spiritual practices were annihilated by the white supremacist schooling in an effort to, by any and all means, assimilate Natives into white settler society.

Resistance by our people, and militant police action by the colonial state to suppress our resistance, did continue though. In 1924 Canada violently suppressed the traditional government of the Haudenosaunee Confederacy, one of the few remaining traditional Native governments in the wake of the Indian Act.

For the most part however the protests of Natives consisted of lobbying the government for better treatment. In the 1950s things began to change. Largely inspired by the Black Civil Rights struggle in the U.S., Natives in both Canada and the U.S. also began organizing. In the south west, Native students began organizing, while in the Northwest, coastal Natives began asserting their treaty rights to fish. The Prairies and the Kanien’kehaka, or Mohawks, of Québec, Ontario and the U.S. lead the charge in this new militancy.

This movement was the first to occur outside the official sactioned band & tribal council system set up by both U.S. & Canadian governments (Native compradors). This early movement established a the basis for a grassroots network of conscious Natives opposed to colonization, and who were committed to maintaining their traditional culture & values, much of which had been lost in the forced schooling of Native children. This informal network formed the basis for the next phase of resistance which took off in the 1960s.

Its no historical mystery that the 1960s was a period marked by rebellion and a revolution on a global scale. Taking inspiration from the fierce resistance of the Vietnamese people against U.S. invasion & occupation, the Cultural Revolution in People’s China and the widespread revolt of students and workers in Europe, new social movements emerged, including the Black Panthers, and the women’s, students, queer liberation and anti-war movement.

It is from this period that the current Native resistance movement more or less emerged. In the 1980s things began to quiet down, but then Oka in 1990 exploded, reviving the movement for the last 20 years. This last 35-year period therefore forms an important part of our history as a movement.

A Timeline of Brown and Red Native Unity

I am of the firm belief that Chicanos/Mexicanos, who are a people representing both full blooded Natives as well as people of mixed Native and European, as well as African, descent should be rightly seen as Native people to North America alongside Indians, Metis and Inuit. They have had their cultures, their languages and their histories twice assaulted: first by the Spanish invaders of Mexico and the American south west, and second by the U.S. gringos following the seizure of northern Mexico. Many have lost their once organic relationship to their indigenous past, but their have always been pockets of resistance, and remembrance. During the height of the Red Power and Chicano Power movements there were many examples of powerful working relationships between brown and red Natives, and today that relationship continues on.

It is not the various names, logo’s, flags, patches, initiation ceremonies or individual groups we organize under that defines us. These things are not important. It is the institution of Indigenous Resistance that unifies us, brown and red, all into one Movement. In recognition of this I have included on this time line not just those actions and events by people called Native by the colonial state, but also those of our brown brothers and sisters.

Mexica Tiahui! Hoka Key!


The U.S. Congress passed the Menominee Termination Act, ending the special relationship between the Menominee tribe of Wisconsin and the federal government. Following the termination of the Menominee the Klamath tribe in Oregon was terminated under the Klamath Termination Act. Finally The Western Oregon Indian Termination Act was enacted west of the cascade mountains. This termination was unique because of the number of tribes it affected. In all, 61 tribes in western Oregon were terminated. This total of tribes numbered more than the total of those terminated under all other individual acts.


The U.S. Congress passed the California Rancheria Termination Act. Rancherias are unique Californian institutions referring to Indian settlements established by the U.S. government. The act terminates 41 of these settlements.


An amendment to the California Rancheria Termination Act was enacted, terminating additional rancheria lands.


The first Brown Beret unit is organized in December in East Los Angeles, California.


At Kahnawake (ga-na-WAH-gay), a traditional Kanien’kehaka Singing Society is formed, which would later become the Mohawk Warrior Society. They begin to take part in protests & re-occupations of land. As well, a protest & blockade of the Seaway International Bridge (demanding recognition of Jay Treaty), at Akwesasne, ends with police attack & arrests of scores of Mohawks.

The American Indian Movement, a Warrior Society of urban Indians, is formed in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Inspired by the traditional Warrior Societies of nations like the Mohawk, and taking cues from the serve the people programmes of the Black Panthers, AIM establishes a community centre, and provides help to Indians in finding work, housing and legal aid. It also helps to organize early protests, and establishes a copwatch patrol. Although the most well known, AIM was just one part of a broad Native resistance movement that emerged at this time (sometimes referred to as Red Power). Other important groups to emerge out of this period are United Native Americans and United American Indians of New England.

The Brown Berets organized chapters throughout the states of California, Arizona, Texas, Colorado, New Mexico and as far away as Milwaukee, Chicago, Detroit, Minnesota, Ohio, Oregon, and Indiana, becoming a national organization.


The event that really kicked things off for the Red Power Movement, the occupation of Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay. The occupation was largely in response to the U.S. Federal Government’s policy of Termination, which eliminated tribal status. The two guinea pigs for the policy, the Menominee of Wisconsin and the Klamath of Oregon, suffered terrible social and economic consequences. The action would last 19 months and be the first Indian protest to receive national & international media coverage. Thousands of Indians participated in the action, most coming from urban areas and searching for their identity.

In March, in Denver, Colorado the Crusade for Justice, a Chicano organization, organized the first National Chicano Youth Liberation Conference that drafted the basic premises for the Chicana/Chicano Movement in El Plan de Aztlán. The following month over 100 Chicanas/Chicanos came together at University of California, Santa Barbara to formulate a plan for higher education: El Plan de Santa Barbara. With this document they were successful in the development of two very important contributions to the Chicano Movement: Movimiento Estudiantil Chicano de Aztlán (MEChA) and Chicano Studies.


AIM protests disrupt the re-enactment of Mayflower landing at Plymouth Rock, Massachusetts, gains national attention & helps AIM to expand. United American Indians of New England declared US Thanksgiving Day a National Day of Mourning. It becomes an annual protest.

The San Diego Brown Berets occupy the land that was to be a California Highway Patrol station in LoganHeights under the Coronado Bridge, forming Chicano Park.


In Pennsylvania, unknown persons break into FBI office and take many classified documents. These revealed the existence of the Bureau’s Counter-Intelligence Program. COINTELPRO, as it was known, set up surveillance and organized repression against progressive social movements in U.S. The program initially targeted the African Liberation Movement, especially the Black Panthers, but would later also turn its eyes on the Red Power and Chicano Movements. It used imprisonment, assaults and lethal force to enforce the established order.

The Brown Berets marched one thousand miles from Calexico to Sacramento in “La Marcha de laReconquista” to protest statewide against racial and institutionalized discrimination, police brutality, andthe high number of Chicano casualties in Vietnam. The Brown Berets then embarc on a yearlong nationwide expedition in “La Caravana de la Reconquista” toorganize La Raza on a national scale to secure rights and self-determination for La Raza.

After much struggle by both the Chicano and the Indian communities (though not without some disagreement), D–Q University is founded. The two year college is path breaking in the way it openly treats Chicanos as tribal Native people. The school becomes home to members of the American Indian Movement, as well as a meeting place for MEChA.


AIM and many other native groups organize the Trail of Broken Treaties. The TBT is a caravan that travelled from the west coast to Washington, D.C. When the caravan of several thousand activists arrived in Washington, government officials refused to meet with them. In response The Bureau of Indian Affairs headquarters is occupied for 6 days. Extensive damage is done to the property and thousands of files taken.

In February of that year Raymond Yellow Thunder is killed by settlers in Gordon, Nebraska. His murderers are only charged with manslaughter, and were then released without bail. AIM organized several days of protests and boycotts, and succeeded in having actual murder charges laid against the settlers. The police chief fired. Yellow Thunder is from Pine Ridge, and this incident helps build a stronger relationship between AIM and traditional Lakotas on the reserve.

The Brown Berets reclaimed Isla de Santa Catalina in order to bring attention of the illegal occupation of theislands by the U.S. and to claim it on behalf of the Chicano people and to bring attention to the shortage ofhousing for the Chicano community. The U.S. has illegally occupied this and the other Archipelago Islandsknown as the Channel Islands since 1848 when they signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.

Brown Berets were infiltrated by sellouts and subversives working for outside organizations including butnot limited to the FBI, LAPD, CWP, ATF, and other “law enforcement” agencies and organizations workingto co-opt the Movimiento Chicano to serve their own agendas. The Brown Berets were disbanded by thethen Prime Minister David Sanchez in order to circumvent any violence the members of the organizationwhich was being promoted by those infiltrators mentioned above.


Another Indian, Wesley Bad Heart Bull, is killed by another racist settler, this time in South Dakota. Again the perpetrator is only charged with manslaughter. On February 6, an AIM again protests against this kind of injustice. In Custer, SD, the protests cause the courthouse erupts into riot. Police cars and buildings are set on fire. 30 people arrested.

On the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota, large numbers of police and US Marshals are deployed to counter the activities of AIM and traditionalist Lakotas opposed to the corrupt tribal president Dick Wilson. With the aid of U.S. government funing Wilson established a paramilitary force known as the Guardians of the Oglala Nation, called GOONs by AIM and its allies.

In a period beginning in this year and ending in 1976, some 69 members or associates of AIM were killed by the GOONs, BIA police and FBI agents in and around Pine Ridge.

Angered by the ongoing repression and violence, some 200 AIM memebers, supporters and traditionalist Lakota warriors begin an occupation of Wounded Knee on February 27. The government responds with a 71-day siege during which two Natives were shot and killed (Buddy Lamont & Frank Clearwater). The siege ends on May 9.

At Kahnawake in September, the Mohawk Warrior Society evicts non-Natives from the over-crowded reserve. This leads to armed confrontation with Québec police in October. Warriors begin to search for land to re-possess.


A group of traditionalist Mohawks, along with veterans of the Wounded Knee occupation, begin an occupation of Ganienkeh in New York state. The warriors retake land and engage in an armed standoff with state police. Eventually, negotiations result in Mohawks taking a parcel of land in upstate NY (in 1977). Ganienkeh, a community run in accordance with ancient Six Nations tradition, continues to exist today.

In Canada, the Native People’s Caravan, modelled after Trail of Broken Treaties takes place form September 14 to 30, and heads from Vancouver, British Colombia to Ottawa. It ends with riot police attacking 1,000 Indian activists at Parliament Building.

Armed roadblocks and occupations occur at Cache Creek, British Colombia, and Kenora, Ontario.


Perhaps the most famous incident of the period: the shootout at Oglala. At Oglala, on the Pine Ridge reservation, the FBI botched a raid on an AIM camp. The failed operation ends with 2 agents killed along with 1 Native defender (Joe Stuntz-Killsright). The FBI launched one of the largest man hunts in US history for AIM suspects afterwords.

Elsewhere, in Wisconsin, the Menominee Warrior Society occupied the abandoned Alexian Brothers novitiate building in Gresham, Wisconsin. The occupation lasted thirty four days and, when it ended, many leaders of the occupation faced criminal indictments and trials.


In February, the body of Anna Mae Pictou-Aquash, a Mik’maq from Nova Scotia, Canada, and member of AIM, is found on the Pine Ridge reservation. Aquash was one of the most well known female members of AIM, a veteran of the BIA occupation and Wounded Knee. Despite an initial cover-up by the FBI, an independent autopsy finds that Aquash had been executed with a bullet in the back of the head. The FBI or GOONs are primary suspects. To this day no one knows for sure who killed Anna Mae, and her death has been used to tear the movement apart, with some fingering others within AIM, and others the government.

Two suspects in the FBI deaths at Oglala (Dino Butler & Bob Robideau) are found not guilty on grounds of self-defense. A third suspect, Leonard Peltier, is captured in Canada. Using false evidence, the FBI have Peltier illegally extradited to South Dakota.


The trial of Leonard Peltier ends with his conviction of murder and imprisonment for 2 life terms. His conviction is based on FBI fabrication and withholding of evidence. Peltier remains in prison to this day, one of the longest held Prisoners of War in the U.S.


On June 11, some 550 Québec Provincial Police raid Restigouche, a Mik’maq reserve of 1,700. Riot police carry out assaults and search homes for evidence of ‘illegal’ fishing. This is in response to complaints by white fishermen that the Mi’kmaq take more than their fair share of fish. This is despite the fact that the white fishermen take order of magnitude more fish than the Indians.

Unión del Barrio is formed. UdB is a Marxist-Leninist and revolutionary nationalist organization Raza organization. UdB expands the usual definition of La Raza to include the indigenous people of North America, making Brown and Red native unity part of its program.


Over 200 Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP), including riot & Emergency Response Teams, raided the Mohawk territory of Kahnawake. They claimed they are searching for illegal cigarettes. In response Warriors seized the Mercier Bridge, a vital commuter link into Montreal, part of which runs through the Kahnawake reserve.

In northern Alberta, the Lubicon Cree began road-blocks against logging and oil companies devastating their territory & way of life. A logging camp and vehicles are damaged by Molotov attacks. The struggle of the Lubicon continues to this day, now with the added threat of even greater ecological destruction and health effects at the hands of the Canadian Oil Sands.

In Labrador, Innu activists began protesting NATO fighter-bomber training at a Canadian military base. Many Innu were arrested during the blockade of runways.


The Oka Crisis. Over 100 heavily-armed Québec provincial police raided a Mohawk blockade at Kanesatake/Oka on June 11. In an initial fire-fight, one cop is shot & killed. Following a 77-day armed standoff began. Eventually it came to involve 2,000 police and 4,500 Canadian soldiers, deployed against both Kanesatake & Kahnawake. The Oka Crisis inspired solidarity actions across country, including road and rail blockades and sabotage of bridges and electrical pylons.


During protests against the 500-year anniversary of Columbus’ invasion of the Americas in October, dozens were arrested in Denver, Colorado. In San Francisco, riot cops fought running battles with protesters, who set 1 police car on fire and disrupted an official Columbus Day parade and re-enactment of his landing.


Brown Berets are re-activated under the old Charter and Provisions as laid out by the previous BrownBeret National Organization.


The Zapatista Rebellion begins. In Chiapas, Mexico, armed rebels of the Zapatista Army of National Liberation launched their New Year’s Day offensive, capturing 6 towns and cities. Comprised of Indigenous peoples, the EZLN declare war on the Mexican state and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). In response, the government deployed 15,000 soldiers and killed several hundred civilians in attacks. Since 1994, the Zapatistas have continued to gain widespread support and sympathy throughout Mexico and the world. Along with Oka, the Zapatista uprising helps to inspire and drive 20 years of resurgence in the Indian movement in North America.


Two major events took place this year in Canada. The first is in Ipperwash, Ontario, were an unarmed protest and re-occupation ended with Ontario police opening fire on the protesters. They kill one Indian, Dudley George, on September 6. The re-occupation had begun in 1993. The land, originally the Stoney Point reserve, was taken by the government during the second world war for use as a temporary army base. After the killing of Dudley George, the government admitted the peoples claims were justified. The second incident is the month-long siege that occured at Gustafsen Lake in the south-central Interior of British Colombia. It began after a settler attempted to evict Secwepemc sundancers from their traditional ceremonial grounds. Some 450 heavily-armed RCMP ERT, with armoured personnel carriers from the Canadian military, surround the rebel camp.


The Native Youth Movement, a militant grouping of largely urban Indians inspired by the original AIM, founded a chapter in Vancouver, British Colombia. It was inspired by the year-long trial of Gustafsen Lake defenders, held near Vancouver. NYM soon began attending conferences, organizing protests, distributing information, etc. In April, NYM carried out 2-day occupation of BC Treaty Commission offices.


The NYM branch in Vancouver carried out 5-day occupation of BCTC offices in April, and a 2-day occupation of Westbank band offices in Okanagan territory. Both of these are actions against treaty process.


The NYM branch in Vancouver helped members of Cheam band, located near Chilliwack British Colombia, assert their right to fish on the Fraser River. NYM Warriors wear masks and camouflage uniforms. They also carry batons to deter Fisheries officers, who routinely harassed Cheam fishers. As a result of this the NYM forms security force. This later took on a life of its on and became the Westcoast Warrior Society.


In May, members of the St’at’imc nation established Sutikalh camp near Mt. Currie, British Colombia, to stop a massive ski resort from being built on an untouched alpine mountain area.

At Burnt Church, New Brunswick, Mi’kmaq fishermen again attempted to assert their treaty rights to fish lobster in September & October. They were again met with repression from hundreds of police and fisheries officers. Members of Westcoast Warrior Society participated in defensive operations.

In October, Secwepemc established the first Skwelkwekwelt Protection Center to stop expansion of Sun Peaks ski resort, near Kamloops, British Colombia. Over the years, some 70 people are arrested and charged as a result of protests, roadblocks & re-occupation camps.

After decades of the struggle by the Indian community and its allies, the San Francisco Peaks are designated a Traditional Cultural Property, which allows it to be eligible for consideration as an official National Historic Register site.


In May, a Secwepemc NYM chapter was established. A 2-day occupation of government office in Kamloops occured to protest selling of Native land.

In July, over 60 RCMP with ERT raided Sutikalh after a 10-day blockade of all commercial trucking on Highway 97. Seven persons are arrested.


In December, Annishinabe in the northern Ontario community of Grassy Narrows began to blockade logging companies from destroying their traditional territory. The blockade becomes one of the longest in recent history, continuing through to the present, and directed primarily against Weyerhaeuser and Abitibi corporations.

In September, RCMP, including Emergency Response Teams and Integrated National Security Enforcement Team (INSET), raided the homes of West Coast Warrior Society members on Vancouver Island. They were allegedly searching for weapons.


In April, homes of NYM members were again raided, this time in Bella Coola and Neskonlith, by RCMP including ERT. This time the cops took computers, address books & propaganda.


In January, Mohawk warriors surrounded the Kanesatake police station after band chief brings in outside police forces to crackdown on political opposition. Over 60 police were barricaded inside station. Chief’s house and car are burned.

In June, RCMP INSET, along with Vancouver police ERT, arrested members of West Coast Warriors Society, for making legal purchase of firearms. Rifles and ammunition were seized in the bust. Shortly after, the West Coast Warrior Society was disbanded by its members. They cited the ongoing repression of them by the police.


In January, members of the Tahltan in northern ‘British Columbia’ occupied the band office in Telegraph Creek in opposition to band’s involvement with mining and oil & gas corporations. In July they began blockading roads being used by construction machinery, and in September fifteen Tahltans including elders were arrested by the RCMP. The Tahltan continued their campaign, including blockades, through 2006 and 2007.


On April 20, over 150 Ontario Provincial Police (OPP) attempted to forcibly remove a blockade at the Six Nations reserve territory near Caledonia, in southern Ontario. They violently arrest 16 Indians, using physical assaults, pepper spray & tasers. The Ontario Provincial Police are forced to withdraw however, as hundreds of Six Nations members converge on the site. More blockades were erected in the area, including on Highway 6, which consisted of burning tires, vehicles and dismantled electrical pylons, and mounds of gravel. A train bridge was also burned down. The next day on the Tyendinaga reserve, a Canadian National Railway line was blocked, cutting off a major freight and passenger line. The Six Nations members originally began their blockade to stop a housing development on land they claimed belongs to them. The blockades and land reclamation continue for over a year, with numerous conflicts with settlers and police occurring, as well as sabotage.

In July, Grassy Narrows Annishinabe protesters, along with members of the Rainforest action Network, blockaded the Trans-Canada Highway. Several persons were arrested.

This year also saw the founding the Wasasé Movement. Wasáse said about itself that it was “an intellectual and political movement whose ideology is rooted in sacred wisdom. It is motivated and guided by indigenous spiritual and ethical teachings, and dedicated to the transformation of indigenous people in the midst of the severe decline of our nations and the crises threatening our existence. It exists to enable indigenous people to live authentic, free and healthy lives in our homelands.” It is largely based on the thought and strategies for change laid in the book of the same name by University of Victoria professor Taiaiake Alfred, a Mohawk from Kahnawake. They are quite Gandhian in their outlook and approach, and due to its academic orientation, many warriors & grassroots organizers remained unexposed to the movement’s philosophy. The movement only last a few years before self-dissolving.


On March 6, a massive Olympic flag that was being flown at the Vancouver City Hall was stolen just as a delegation from the International Olympic Committee arrived to inspect the city’s preparations for the 2010 Winter Olympics. A few days later, as the IOC tour ended, the Native Warrior Society released a communiqué claiming responsibility for taking the flag, including a photograph of three masked members standing in front of the Olympic flag and holding a Warrior flag. The group claimed the action in honour of Harriet Nahanee, a Native elder who passed away after being sentenced to two weeks imprisonment for taking part in a 2006 blockade of construction on the Sea-to-Sky highway in preparation for 2010.

This year also saw the attempt by a group of Lakota leaders to move for the unilateral withdrawal of the Lakota from the Treaties of 1851 and 1868 as permitted under the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, of which, the United States is a signatory. Their proposed independent nation is called the Republic of Lakotah.

On the June 29 a Day of Action was called by the Assembly of First Nations (AFN), the the national organization of the Indian Act band council chiefs across Canada. The AFN claimed the event as a huge success , with over 100,000 people participating, however most of the people participating in the actions, protests, and rallies were non-native, which speaks to the AFN’s inability to mobilize their people despite all the resources they have. In fact, many militant Native organizations, such as the Native Youth Movement, called a boycott of the Day of Action. These organizations, rightly, stated that the AFN does not represent our people and that, when they talk about solutions, their long-term goal is actually assimilation.

In December members of the Chaco Rio Indian community in New Mexico established a blockade to prevent preliminary work for proposed development of a massive coal-fired power plant.


Across Canada the so-called Olympic “Spirit Train” was met with disruptions and protests at its stops by Native warriors and their non-Native allies. Across Canada other preparations for the 2010 Winter Olympics, set to take place on unceded Indian land, were disrupted by protesters.

The Mohawk Nation branch of the Haudenosaunee Confederacy at Kahnawake filed a formal complaint about the construction of Super Highway 30.


The land reclamation effort at Caledonia by the Six Nations Haudenosaunee Confederacy entered its third year with the warriors showing no signs of backing down. It continues to be ongoing to this day.

Warriors of the Mohawk Nation branch of the Haudenosaunee Confederacy at Akwesasne – which straddles Ontario, Québec and New York State – expelled Canadian border guards at a crossing with the United States which passes through their territory, seizing control of the border station.

Native warrior, American Indian Movement leader and political prisoner Leonard Peltier is again denied parole by the colonial government in the United States. His next parol hearing will not be until the year 2024.


In February Native warriors gathered with anti-capitalists/anti-imperialists, feminists, environmentalists and other social justice advocates to fight back against the Vancouver Winter Olympics which took place on unceded Coast Salish territory.

In July people in Oka and the nearby Mohawk community gathered to remember the resistance at Oka and to protest the ongoing attempts to marginalize the Mohawk people and take their land.

The Canadian Federal Government used an obscure part of the 1900 Indian Act to forcibly strip the Barrie Lake Algonquin of their traditional government, and replace it with a Band Council subservient to Ottawa. The Barrie Lake people met this imperialist-colonialist move with stiff resistance.

John Graham, a Native of the Yukon, and a former member of the American Indian Movement, is convicted of the murder of his former AIM comrade Anna Mae Pictou Aquash. As noted earlier, much of the evidence in the case points to Anna Mae’s death having been at the hands of the FBI.


In June 500 agents of the colonial state invade sovereign Mohawk communities in Quebec. On paper they are looking for marijuana, but it much more likely that this is state terror tactics against some of the most firmly sovereigntist Native communities on the continent.


83 thoughts on “Native American Genocide

  1. This is sooo sad there is no words to explain it. I am part cherokee, my great great grandmother was full, and i wish i could say that. Native Indians are beautiful, smart and strong people, the world needs more of them and there culture. It really makes me sick to hear that America was “free for the takeing” when they sailed here. This place belongs to Gods people, the ones that knew how to save the land and live off it. The only thing I can do is play the cards Ive been delt, have pride in the only roots I care about and try to give the world more peace!

    1. I’m sorry to know that your family has suffered. It is quite similar for us Slavs in many regions around the world. But never to the extent in number as Native Americans. I think the best thing we can do is honor our ancestors, preserve our culture and traditions, learn everything possible and write it down. Save it and spread the knowledge. Group with others and combine this knowledge and make sure it never dies. This is how we honor those before us. This is how we pay respect for their suffering. Embrace your heritage and wear it proudly. Never let anyone take it from you. And fight them if they try. Never back down. Never surrender.

    2. Hi I’ve just finished reading your open letter that is featured on the “Native American” genocide page. It is so wonderful that you are a proud native american woman who is not afraid to tell the world about your awesome race. I myself am a Indigenous Aboriginal woman from Perth WA who is really interested in your race and your culture. I also find that both our races have been wronged by the white man and it’s still happening to this day in my country. We have a saying in my family about the white man that they “befriend, deceive, and disposess”.

      1. Laryssa, I’m a front line worker in the medical field. I’m a white European who emigrated to Canada at the age of 17. I’m currently setting up an Aboriginal Affairs Unit at my facility and have been researching at great lengths the history and current situations facing aboriginals so that I can better assist them and be a positive advocate for them. I have literally risked my life to save aboriginal individuals when I’m NOT on the job and witnessed apathy by observers. I clearly see and acknowledge terrible racism towards aboriginal people both in the past and today and I actively meet with elders and aboriginal leaders to learn all I can and be educated so I can in turn help and educate. Your comment – “We have a saying in my family about the white man that they “befriend, deceive, and disposess”.” brought me great sadness. Please do not judge ALL white people so, I’m dedicating a large part of my life to the contrary of this statement because I care and want to make a difference with no expectation in return, but a hope I can help someone in need.

  2. hello, i checked out the website and found the picture that has many of the native american faces (above the title “The English/American Genocide”). I like this picture alot, but i found the vertical line in the middle of the picture, probably from the folding the original paper… so I photoshopped it and took out the line from the picture. I hope you could reuse it. I uploaded it here, so you can download. cus I wanted to help.

    1. Thank you very much for your continued readership and support, comrade! I much appreciate your efforts to help me. I’ll replace the old picture right away.

  3. that’s right. Everything that has been said on this website, really took place. It is a great pity that most non-native people today don’t even know a fraction of what happened to American Indians. It is time to awaken the collective consciousness to what was done, if we want any real change in the lives of American Indians. Only that acknowledgment will heal the wound.
    Toni (Bismarck, ND)

  4. Yes much Gratitude for the Sad but True Story,
    Its OUR COLLECTIVE story and it is still continuing today. It is the Same here for the AUSTRALIAN Aboriginals.
    4 Years ago these People and their lands were placed under military intervention and this Australian government under a British Constitution along with AMERICA have organized to mine; from 120 mines the uranium that their land rests upon. Please help these people acknowledge this pain and this crazy disconnection and connect with the Thrive organisation as well as the Arnhem land aboriginals / yolongu peoples peace and blessings to all with a conscious heart

  5. Why hasn’t anyone looked into who orchestrated the conspiracy to kill off the natives all over the world? Why are records sealed in canada, and probably the other country’s to. Why hasn’t a list of the 50,000/60,000 children who died as a result of being infected with tuburculosis, or simply vanished. Why isn’t anyone attem,pting to check out the mass graves they are finding at some of the “schools” they are tearing down. Why don’t all the Chiefs have a summit meeting and discuss ALL OF THEIR PROBLEMS on their reserves. You must know, that there is not a single gov’t official at any level, is going to help any native to improve themselves. (Except for natives who have been appleized.) I have looked at ‘Hidden from History’ and have told people about about this genocide, but no one cares. They must have seen the propaganda movies about the atrocities committed by these savage “Injuns”.. Maybe the people who made these movies are part of the conspiracy??

  6. It is very interesting to learn the history of how the indian civilization was destroyed.. as a living proof i have very little knowlegde of how and why we are considered to be uncivilized… I must thank the authors of this publications for a very thorough and informative piece.

  7. i was doing research on how the native indians in michigan lived and live today i just stubbled on this site and well guess i got me a bit of history that i will not be able to share in school thank you for this bit of insight i will remember this through my life and look at american indians in a diffrent way seems sad to know the truth and not be able to share i would probley get a bad grade if i made a report on this

  8. I really love this blog, first time on it. I hope more people read this and understand, this blog really shares the details into who are the real suffers here in this land and also that all these people that are here are complaining about immigration and there the ones who don’t belong here. WAKE UP!!!! I’d hate to be the bearer of bad news but most of us including me, we are all immigrants, the people who should leave are the ones complaining. All native people who live in there own land are living in a damn 3rd world community, stop complaining. Also Mexicans use to own and live in the western United States, so technically they were forcibly removed from there own land and we are arrogant enough to deny what we did, even though it was a long time ago. Think about it………Sorry for the rant but i needed to get that off my chest. I dont even know if i have Native ancestry here, i hope i do, i love this land and there people. I’m only 19, but one thing i want to do in my life is become a leader or influential figure for a tribes of America, that’s my dream. Thanks again to the publisher of this blog and site.

  9. When I stumbled upon this site I was looking for more information regarding the slaughter of native Americans. What I found angered me, empowered me and simultaniously disgusted me. I wish I could go back in time and tell the natives to never trust them! I am sad and forlorn. I feel as if the spirits of those taken in such a violent manner are reaching out– demanding justice for their lives, their culture and the way of life that my ancestors stripped from them. I am full of shame to be white. How could a civil human do those things? We were truly the savages. You cannot take something that doesn’t have a price. This Land belongs to the natives. There is no way we could ever make it up to them. In the last 500 years we have undone thousands of years of their prosperity and life. We are such hypocrites, full of greed and lust for what anyone else has.

    I apologize to those of you who are of native descent, nothing will ever make it right. You own this land. You deserve the right to live how you were meant to. I am disgusted that we worship politics and “heroes” who murdered other humans, a crime punishable by death here in Texas for only one life; much less hundreds, thousands or millions.

    I wish you all peace and prosperity.

  10. Please, publish this information in a video or create more blogs with similar information. It would be quite worth it. I think if the mainstream public are aware of this information, it can be incredibly influence how history in presented in the United State with the American Indians perspective finally present!

  11. As a proud Full Blooded Navajo, i am thankful that some of the madness is uncovered and brought to attention for all to learn. I am sad that my ancestors endured such hatred and also very mad for all the blood that stains this land that i walk to this day………..

    1. None of my ancestors were in the US really at the times most of these atrocities were committed. However, I’d still like to say I’m deeply sorry for what your ancestors endured but applaud you on still keeping your head high and proud of your heritage. There is nothing worse than losing who you were and are and becoming a puppet to the world. May life continue to bless you!

  12. Very long but still so short compared to what happened. I grew up with Native Americans in both Lumberton, North Carolina and a dear Cherokee that lived in Memphis, TN. He was like a dad to me since mine didn’t live with me. He even gave me a Cherokee name. I have always loved Native Americans, their traditions, their culture and it always saddens me to think of their story. And to think this kind of behavior is STILL going on to this day.

    THANK YOU for posting this. I’ve shared this on FB among my friends. I would love to quote parts of this, in a post on one of blogs, also. No worries, I’d link back to you giving full create. I don’t steal. I wanted to ask permission first, though.

    Thanks again.

    With love from Serbia,

  13. I remain without words in front of such horrible cruelty towards the Native Americans.. I always think about this like the worst crime ever committed in the world!!!!!

  14. I dont understand how anyone could be so cruel to such a peaceful people. I have told some of my friends about this website people need to know the story of us the true first americans

  15. My people have suffered much in the last 520 years. Besides the intial attacks the white man has done to us they also tried to erase us from history. ” Save the man kill the Indian” was they way they tried. We were not a perfect people, are ways and beliefs were strange to them and so that apparently mean that we all were ungodly heathens. Sometimes we would do horrible things to ourselves, but we didn’t deserve this much brutality. I am just learning my native tongue, something I should have known all of my life. I however am glad that we put up a fight till we finally had to stop. I am proud to call my self an Indian and that’s something you will never take from me.

  16. God bless the Native American Indians! I am proud that my grandpa was a full blooded Native American Indian!

  17. Keep the fight alive brothers and sisters. I’m only a quarter Creek but I still feel the pain and suffering for the natives then and now. Fight for your rights and we can all pull together to gain what was rightfully yours. Overthrow the corrupt U.S. government and restore peace to the land, no more war or pointless restrictions on our basic rights as human beings. Peace and love from Georgia.

  18. I am a school Principal in Rosarito Beach Mexico and personally a Hawaiian-Mexican descendent. Have lots of cousins and other relatives of different American Tribes, so my interest in the matter is genuine. I am organizing an Summer Camp; this year theme will be Native Americans, including background information of Red as well as Brown tribes, part of our curriculum will cover the truth of the Nations that is easilly hidden to our children in schools. Thanks for sharing such wonderful information. It is our keen interest to tell the truth.

  19. Well done for your job. I get angry when I see these people making memorial for the Jews every year when in fact who deserve it should the whole American Indian. I would like to make people aware of this sad story, because we do not learn it in school.Thats why I volunteer myself to help you in any other future project you have about the American Indian. God bless you.

    1. I can understand your anger regarding memorials put up for some and not others. . .I am Jewish and had many a relative killed in the Hitler Holocaust. . and from what I am reading, Hitler felt the “Americans” did a great job with eliminating the heathens. . (makes me want to throw up) and based a lot of his “work” on that. I also feel that there is NOT enough emphasis on what happened (and still happening) to the Native Americans. .nothing was taught in school and Coloumbus was/is regarded as a hero. . what? Like I said, I completely undertand your anger, but I do feel there is room for all and that education is primary (at least a start) to keeping the horific treatment of certain people that are deemed “lower” then others from ever happening again. . and to stop it from continuing! Never forget.

  20. Disgusted! But Karma doesn’t expire. They are or will pay in this life or their next lives, That is if such people are allowed to be rebirthed into mother earth. And still today there exists Idiots uncivilized and full of self centeredness that are racial and discriminate again people that are not White American/European. I can only wish that one day all of the world’s race would be simply a mixed of all….Together…..No just one, but that all humans were a melting pot of all the races put together. Do they no know or understand that it is proven that within our own DNA we will always be Native and African descendants… at least 1% of their DNA will be Native/African decendant blood lines.

  21. I wish First Peoples (U.S. and Canada) would stop identifying themselves by degree. It’s not necessary and it’s NOT TRADITIONAL. If you’re a descendant, you’re Indian. The ‘measuring cup’ is a perpetuation of First Peoples genocide. We’re doing it to ourselves now, without even realizing it.
    It’s a construction of Bureaus of Indian Affairs. Stop doing it.

  22. A sad truth to read, this piece of history has been so easily overlooked thanks to the intelligent handling of the world from powerful governments. It is good to see it being brought forth somewhere so we all can realize what this “nation” has been founded on. If there is ever any assistance in need, feel free to contact the provided email. I am tired of feeling the need to take back time and wish to realistically adjust the future towards better times.

    Earth’s blessings

  23. Thank you for making the public aware. I always knew the bullshit they fed us in school was just that: bullshit. Colombus and Washington being “great men”. Let us give our children the TRUTH (as they already know it in their hearts) so that they will never make the mistakes our ancestors did to fellow humans. I am ashamed my family was part of the extermination and removal of the Native people of Turtle Island. It breaks my heart. The only thing I can do is teach my son the Red Path because I KNOW, the wisdom of the Red Road will heal humanity of its insanity. Peace, Blessings, Love.

  24. I remeber being in school and learning about this new land. The only thing I would look at was the indain. I would feel it and was sadden but didnt know way. My spirit knew. Being native indian/ mexican/ spain myself I could feel there was more to the story then they where saying only hidden in the spirits of my ancestors I would feel like the spirits where really trying to tell me something. The lies the gov. can say what can and can not go in text books is bullshit. I want my sons to know how and what happen. My husband is Irish and he agrees that if anyone should call themself american is us. We where here 1st not them. I will keep this sit to saw my three sons.
    Thank you

  25. Just a small point. I think the line :
    “for example in 1937 the Pequot Indians were exterminated by the Colonists when they burned their villages in Mystic,..”
    Should have the date 1637 in place of 1937.
    A simple error but should be fixed.

  26. I stumbled on this site through Pinterest. I first found out about how many people and tribes were in north america before the genocide through time/life books that my father bought around 37 years ago. It’s amazing how this information has been hidden in plain sight. The information is there, maybe the internet will be the great equalizer for the native americans as it has been for middle eastern people whose plight has recently been brought to light. Bad things are still happening, but we have to continue to hope and share the information to raise the consciousness of everyone.

  27. I am suprised Chief Oseola of the Seminole nation is not shown? The Seminoles launched three wars in Florida against the white man(the three Seminole wars) hence names like Fort Lauderdale and Fort Myers.
    Other important Indian uprises in the Americas: The war of the castes in Yucatan,the massacre of 1932 in El Salvador,the conquest of th desert in Patagonia,Argentina.
    If interested in genocides like what happened to the Caribbean and North American natives,read how the Selk’nam of Tierra Del Fuego were virtually exterminated,their way of life changed ,the bounty hunts similar to North American Indians,the loss of their language.
    Also read about the fate of the Aleutian Islanders in Alaska how they commited mass sucides throwing themselves off cliffs rather than in to the “white man”
    Also of interest how President Profirio Diaz of Mexico wanted to “whiten” Northern Mexico relocating the Northen Mexican Indians to work on plantations in the Yucatan and encouraging “white” European migration to settled in Northern Mexico,on the same boat President Maximiliano Hernadez of El Salvador 1932 “retribution” on the Pipil people of Western El Salvador and how after that they were ashamed of their language,did not want to wear traditional clothing,etc. and his encouragement of “white” European migration.

  28. Similar to the Christian boarding schools,many Indians,specially nomadic Native Americans from the Californias(both Alta and Baja including the Indians from the Channel Islands of California who were transported to the mainland missions) to Florida ,from Hispanola throughout Mexico and Central America to Missiones in Northern Argentina ,Amerindians were settled into these missions to work for the missionaries,many died of diseases such as smallpox in the missions.From the first Spanish contact when Spaniards were given large tracts of land called encomiendas; which included the Indians on those lands,the Indians were being used as labor sometimes in very harsh conditions such as in the case of mining. Later came the missions; many places still bear the name of this past such as the Domincan Republic on Hispanola or Missiones a province in Northern Argentina where the ruins of old missions still stand hence the name.

  29. The Spaniards not only depleated the native Taino and Arawak populations of the major Antilles Islands:first Hispanola ,but later the same was done on Cuba,Puerto Rico and Jamaica;but after the population was dwingling before bringing African slaves;they did slave raids in the Bahamas depleating the Bahama native Lucayo population and later taking the last of the native Tequestas and Calusas of southern Florida to Cuba.It has been documented that on Hispanola there were workers and household servants from Indian tribes as far north as the Carolinas.
    In the Guanacaste peninsula of Cosat Rica as cattle ranchers expanded ,the last of the native Chorotega indians were taken to Peru to be given as hosuehold servants.
    My point is yes,natuves have been stripped of their native heritage and forcefully relocated not only the natives of the Americas,but other indigenous people as well,for example Spaniards would bring Filipinos and Guamanians to Mexico;Filipinos and Mexicans to Guam(interbreeded with the local populations to produce today’s Chammorros) and Mexicans to the Philliipines.So the native Mexicans ended up in such far away lands such as the Phillipines.
    The Spanish were not the only Europeans guilty of relocating native people,for example the Black Caribs(natives that had largely mixed with Maroons,runaway African slaves.) of St Vincent were finally captured by the British after several Carib wars;they were relocated to the island of Roatan in the Bay Islands now part of present day Honduras ;later from there moved to the mainland Honduran coast and Belize and today they are known as Garifuna.For example Belize is not just home to their native Mayans,but the also home to the Garifunas ;Mayans who escaped the Caste Wars of the Yucatan and later on in the 1980’s Mayans who escaped the armed conflicts in Guatemala.So as you can see we natives have been going up and down everywhere and even today you find large numbers of Mexican and Guatemalan natives in the USA: from California to Texas to Mississippi to Florida.For example I did not know there is a town in Louisiana where they speak Mexican Nahuatl.

  30. When you say, “500 year war”, what are the dates exactly that this would represent. My thanks in advance.

  31. I was doing a project and I saw all this… Is this still happening??? I think the UN need to be waken up a little. Have the Native’s tried that yet? If there’s enough support, I’m sure something will happen. Surly the US should fund these ‘reservations’ (if I’m right in saying some still live in those). Or have yanks just given up… I’m surprised there’s been no up-rise yet. What a bloody shame.

  32. because it is still happening. now they call it “child protection” when they steal and abuse our children. “Assimilation”.
    This is called terrorism…using violence and intimidation for political purposes…

  33. There are no words to describe what white people have been doing to the Native Americans. Reading this article, tears just flow on their own. I also read quite a few books regarding the Native Americans and all of this is true but I fear that the number of people killed is much greater than presented here. For me as a caucasian it is an unspeakable shame what others have been doing in the name of ill-religion, so called “equality” and other pseudo-reasons. Although I’m from Poland I can really feel like being with You my Native American Friends. I know that the loss of many generations of great and peaceful people is a catastrophe, mankind has never seen in its existence. Personally, I would love to have Native American Friends to talk to here in Poland but it’s rather impossible as there are very few. I’m greatly interested in Your wisdom, way of life revering nature and the teachings about the Great Spirit.

    1. I am native american and I would love to talk with you. We have come a long way and one thing that cannot be beaten out of us ….is our love for life and mother earth.

  34. Pingback: Anonymous
  35. Thank you for putting this website together. It’s disheartening how many people today don’t even know the real history of our people. I’ll be sharing this website with alot of people. Hopefully some will start to wake up.

  36. Wow wow wow wow, I am a white american whose ancestors are probably among the evil ones who devised to exterminate the Natives & I CAN NOT STAND for a country that was built on lies & deaths of countless natives. I am ashamed of my country & my ancestors & I would willingly give my life for the loss of those who did not deserve the selfish injustices that were bestowed upon them & in the name of GOD no less. This is awful, I was aware of the truth but I had no idea just how terrible the truth really is. I could not continue to read all the horrible things that took place as they are too painful. The children is what pains me the most. Innocent beautiful children. FUCK this shit. We know who the real savages beasts were. Last year I denounced & renounced christianity, NOT GOD as well as thanksgiving. I can no longer celebrate a day that is based on false information or misinformation. To me I would be celebrating death of natives & that I just can not do. NO I CAN NOT & WILL NOT> I AM PISSSSED & THIS HAS SPARKED A FIRE WITHIN & IT IS MY GOAL TO HELP SPREAD AWARENESS. it is the least I can do for the men, women & CHILDREN that have suffered & continue to suffer among the tribes of this nation. GOD help me in my quest to spread awareness to this naive planet. God give me the tools & the direction needed to open the eyes of the people. Thank you for writing this & posting this amazing research on the web, whoever you are. May you & your family be blessed ten times over & over & over.

  37. I have never really been into history, but have just taken my first course in college. The course does not cover directly most of this information, but rather a search on revolutionary war information led me here. I am speechless, and ashamed to be “white”. I am married to a Mexican woman who I love dearly– and see beyond color other than I find it attractive. Words cannot express how this webpage has made me feel. I would be happy to help in whatever manner I may, in humble service and respect. Feel free to contact me. I believe men are made, and not born. My life has made me a decent person, and I have made difficult choices. Thank you for sharing this information. I hope to hear from the writers and supporters.

  38. The white man projected himself saying others are the savage. When the rest of the world regarded Europeans as barbarians and had lttle to no dealings with them. The white man got sicker and unwittingly developed illness which they shared I know we shouldn’t use the term “white man” I mean the idealology. I’m half white and grew up with a sense of shame strangely I’m proud to feel the shame as it makes me a better person but we should all feel shame collectively as one people of this plannet not segregate ourselves because that leads to conflicts let’s share love like what the native Americans knew taught in the beginning peace among men

  39. They killed to many of us as is now they try to kill our culture & I have my real name on here since I can’t use it in school

    1. My son is 9 and they had to learn about a native Indian an write a report. I did not check out books from the Library because a lot of them don’t tell the truth about anything. So I told him and now he knows. Being native myself i wanted my son understands what really happen and he shared it with his whole class. Playing native flute in the background. Love it!!!

  40. This is horrifying. As a middle school student in Canada, I haven’t heard a breath of this in our history classes. If it weren’t for my own curiosity about cultures, I would never have found that such a terrible event even existed. What is going on with our education systems? Maybe it’s just me, but when I find that our government, our entire education, has been lying to us, falsified, fudged and played around with… It’s frustrating, enraging. How is this still happening? How can our country claim to be “multi-cultural” when we are committing genocide, and unable to admit it. After some digging around on other sites, there is evidence that this is still happening today. Why aren’t we taught this in schools? I just don’t know anymore.The worst part is, people aren’t even willing to admit this crime. Not to offend any religions, but are these claims to be working for the will of god even worth listening to? Perhaps some will argue that this is an event in the past. But are we willing to admit it happened. I think I shall be sharing this with my class. No one even knows about this, how, how, how! What is wrong with this world?!?

  41. The enormity of the Holocaust that was perpetrated by Euro-Americans never fails to break my heart, but the more we learn and the more people who spread the knowledge the better. As a Native woman I am astonished time and time again by the lies in history books and the myths that still flourish in the USA. Facts are, USA was built on genocide, lies, and theft. Hypocrisy and racism are at the very heart of America. All indigenous peoples can come together and share our tragic histories and form a united front against tyranny and corruption.

  42. I have always feltbad about what went on there has been much hate in this world i am of mixed ancestry, i am english,scottish,irish,german,swedish,finnish,norman french,choctaw,african and jewish…i am not ashamed of who i am…most people seem to forget everybody was once tribal we werent meant to live like we do now but hopefully one day everyone wakes up an we can all live in peace…i am not racist i believe people of all colors an nationalities can be evil wether your black white red brown yellow blue purple green…but i am against the way soscieity is now is not what it should be…it is sickening and i hope that it stops eventually…i dont care for labeling myself but my maternal grandfather was half choctaw my maternal 4th great grandmother was african an my paternal great grandmother was a jew…i have encounteredlots of racism in my life mainly cause im mixed but i myself am not ashamed i am the way the great spirit intended me to be i just hope i can do all that i can to show that i am a true human being….we all at one time came from the same place so actually we are all brothers and sisters which is why we should think before saying or doin mean things to one another…just reading this hurts me

  43. I will do everything in my power to create awareness & honor the noble men, women and children who were harmed in this. I ask Master DK & the Divine Mother to aid me in support of this mission, in love and light, for the Highest good. Thank you for your well-written and thorough thesis.


  44. I was researching on Native Americans as I have to teach this subject now for 3rd graders. I was deeply saddened to confirm all my suspisions- that history is always written by the victors. I had no idea that it all happened this atrocious, unhumane way. And of course, I cannot share this degree of information with my students, but I shall definetely select a few of the age-appropriate images and have them reflect on them together…to open their eyes softly without traumatizing, of course. To use this to teach citizenship, respect for human life and for diversity.

  45. Thanks for this wonderful informational site on the internet. I am sending it to my children and hopefully keep spreading the truth of what was always felt and questioned by me even as a child. I grew up in northern Ohio and had read about the Iroquois and the federation formed between several tribes. I read and saw many Native American names on the landmarks,State, counties and rivers. I even realized that there were various reservations in the U.S.–but never met an Native American in Ohio. So i asked in a history class that questions–where are all the Native Americans? Well that being said-I was branded a troublemaker and sent out of the classroom.

  46. My heart is broken, the strife and horrors that your people have gone, and are still fighting through, is malevolence at it’s peak. There are so many similarities to the boer war that I see here. I read a biography on Hitler about 5 years ago, but it never mentioned his appreciation and enthusiasm for the manner of genocide used against your people. It makes so much sense. So much hate.
    My heart cries for your people.
    i guess the notion of freedom and peace is worth dreaming of, fighting for, but will always be just out of our grasp.

  47. Thank you, so much for compiling all of this great and vital info about the Native American struggle. I was doing a lil’ photo research and studying many tribes and came across this. I must dissect all of this info in due time, big ups to TES!

  48. History is a playbook lies written by the victors to absolve themselves of culpability. Real history is brutal, cruel and full of atrocities. Most Americans believe the garbage that they study in school………Few learn the truth of the murderous acts perpetrated by our founding father “heroes”.

  49. I read this information by chance, while teaching a course, and I’m reading still…my heart is saddened that few textbooks cover these atrocities. Genocide in the name of politics or so-called religion continues as we speak.

  50. My people, the Tahltan First Nations are fighting for the a place called Klappan, it is located in Northern British Columbia Canada. We have another name for this special place…The Sacred Headwaters of the Stikine, Nass, and Skeena Rivers! We have a group called the Klabona Keepers, they blockaded in 2005 against Shell and succeeded, but even after that victory, another company has come in. Fortune Minerals wants to have an open pit coal-mine in this special place. The impact of this mine can be devastating if it falls through, so please, my fellow Aboriginal, Indigenous, First Nations people, your support would be gladly appreciated!!! Help save our water, land, animals…Our way of life!!! Sign the petition

  51. A sad, sad tale. There are certainly many reasons for American Indians to feel angry at other American’s self-righteous and often atrocious treatment of them, their culture and way of life. For my part I think we are sufficiently wealthy (a wealth based in part by the natural riches of the continent) to right the effects of some of these wrongs. i admit that’s not likely to happen though. I do disagree with saying all of these American Indian deaths were genocidal. The massive dieing off in the first hundred years or so of contact was mostly the result of people with little natural resistance being exposed to European pathogens. I’m concerned the tallying on this site will lead many to discount your many fine observations and conclusion. there were many genocidal policies as you well point out. But let’s not forget the many Americans, and even 16th century Spaniards, who protested and spoke out against the policies.

Comments are closed.

%d bloggers like this: