The Chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and Premier of the State Council of China, Hua Kuo feng has just ended his long trip which took him to Rumania and Yugoslavia. Formally, this trip was publicized as one of a general character, in return for the official visits of the Rumanian and Yugoslav leaders to China last year. But judging from what Hua Kuo feng proclaimed from public tribunes in Bucharest and Belgrade and from the stress the Chinese press has been laying recently on some aspects of the Chinese foreign policy, it follows that this clamorous tour was undertaken in pursuit of sinister aims. Hua Kuo feng came to Rumania and Yugoslavia neither to see the high mountains and beautiful plains of the Balkans, nor urged by any special interest in the ancient history of the peoples of this peninsula, nor to acquaint himself with the aspirations and hopes they cherish for the future.
He came to the Balkans in pursuit of the same aims as Khrushchev, Brezhnev, Nixon and others before him. They were profuse in high-sounding pledges about their “friendship” with, and love for, the peoples of the Balkans, and abounded in “assurances” for the freedom, independence, prosperity of the countries of this region. But life has shown, and continues to show, that US imperialism, as well as Soviet imperialism, has sought and is seeking by all manner of means to subjugate the Balkan countries and put them under its hegemony, to turn them into springboards of aggression against other countries, enslave the peoples of this peninsula and hitch them to its war chariot.
The Chinese leadership now pursues the same aims. Hua Kuo-feng, too, came to the Balkans not to bring the “spirit of sincere friendship”, as he proclaimed at meetings, but to use someone’s professions of friendship against the other peoples of the Balkans and Europe.
Certainly, exchanges of delegations are a common practice in the relations between various countries and we have no objection to it. But we are against the sinister aims behind this exchange of delegations which are to the detriment of world peace and the peoples who want to live free, independent and sovereign, and are fighting for it.
The Balkan talks of the Chinese leaders took place at a time when China has been unfurling the banner of rapprochement and cooperation with US imperialism, the big international bourgeoisie, fascist cliques and the most reactionary groupings in the world, far and wide.
They were held at a time when the Chinese leadership is supporting NATO and the Common Market in Europe, the multinationals and United Europe, in order to preserve capitalist oppression and the US hegemony there.
They were conducted at a time when in Africa, Asia and Latin America it stands by fascist military juntas, by all those who oppress and exploit the peoples. The political and ideological affinity of the Chinese leaders to such regimes is revealed also by Hua Kuo feng’s visit to Iran.
He meets the Shah of Persia and has cordial talks with him at a time when the revolutionaries and working people have risen against the Shah, and clashes are taking place in the streets of Iranian cities. In this situation, by going to Tehran Hua Kuo feng wants to give proof of his support for the medieval regime of the Shah. His visit is a grave offence not only to the Iranian people, out also to the entire democratic and progressive public opinion, which has vehemently been condemning the brutal acts of the regime of the Shah against the population which has risen in revolt.
The Chinese leadership dispatched a top level delegation to Bucharest and Belgrade after having cut off all aid and credits to socialist Albania in a perfidious, brutal, arrogant and unilateral manner for the sole reason that Albania rejected and opposed China’s anti Marxist, counterrevolutionary sad pro-imperialist line. Thus, this visit to the Balkans is an act of provocation against Albania and is friendship with the peoples of Yugoslavia and Rumania.
Hua Kuo feng came to the Balkans at a time when the Chinese leadership, proceeding from its expansionist and hegemonic aims, has instigated he bloody conflict between Cambodia and Vietnam, two neighbouring fraternal countries.Therefore, no matter how much the Chinese propaganda will publicize Hua Kuo feng’s visit to the Balkans, the peoples cannot fail to see that there are no two different Chinese policies on, imperialist towards Vietnam and one socialist towards Rumania, one hostile and chauvinistic towards Albania and one friendly and sincere toward Yugoslavia, one a policy of interference in Asia and Africa and one a policy of peace in Europe.
The present day Chinese leadership pursues one and the same policy, a policy clearly defined and consistently put into practice. It is the typically imperialist policy of a superpower, a policy intended to instigate war and achieve world domination.
The foremost aim of the Chinese policy and strategy as a whole is to achieve political unit with US imperialism and other imperialists why; are China’s allies, for the domination of the world by the United States of America. China and other big capitalist countries. With its present course. China is striving by all manner of means to create its spheres of influence, which it has been lacking in so far. This is also the reason why it has favourably opened itself to the capitalist countries and has united with the US and other imperialists.
But China’s claim for spheres of influence, particularly in the developing countries, in Africa or on other continents, cannot be realized without clashes with other imperialists who have their own interests there, or without further sharpening its contradictions with them. The Chinese leadership is well aware of this, therefore, in joint efforts with the USA, now it is trying to set up a barrier against the expansionist ambitions of Soviet imperialism and to check the consolidation of the tatter’s positions. With the help of the United States of America, it aims to oppose the imperialist expansion of the Soviet Union so that China can step into its place. The anti Soviet policy of the Chinese revisionists proceeds from .this aim, and , by no means from their concern or desire to defend other countries from the expansion and hegemony of the Soviet social imperialists, or from their struggle for the purity of Marxism Leninism.
The treaty China signed with Japan recently serves this end, too. It is a treaty which is meant as a barrier against the Soviets in the east of Asia and, at the same time, as a means for an eventual Chinese march on the Soviet Union. US imperialism stands behind the Sino-Japanese treaty. Decked out in an anti social-imperialist garb by the Chinese leadership and its partners, this treaty instigates world war.
The expansionist policy of China’s leadership is now most evident in Africa where it is engaging in very feverish activities. On this continent it is coming out in support of US imperialism and other capitalist powers, trying to preserve their neo-colonialist positions. Under the guise of protecting the peoples of Africa, little by little and in step with the strengthening of its economy, thanks to the aid it is receiving from the USA and other capitalist countries, China is striving to create its zones of influence and markets. On its part, China, too, has begun to assist some African states but, its assistance , not unlike that of old imperialists, is not intended for the economic, political, cultural progress of these countries, it is aimed at plundering their riches and subjugating them politically to Chinese hegemony.
Of course, these aims cannot be realized as easily as the Chinese may want, without fierce political, economic and diplomatic clashes, probably even armed clashes, with the other imperialists. who have already entrenched themselves in Africa, or with the Soviet Union, which certainly has not been sitting by with folded arms but, on the contrary, has made all efforts to create its own spheres of influence on that continent. China will meet with great resistance and opposition particularly from the peoples and the progressive leaderships of the African countries.
The other aim of China’s foreign policy is to penetrate the Balkans. Ideologically, Albania has long since been engaged in the struggle against the revisionist theses and political line of the Chinese leadership. Its efforts to bring the Chinese leadership on to the correct road of Marxism Leninism clearly testify to this. When the Chinese leadership realized that they could not handle socialist Albania according to their wishes and dictate from great state positions, when their game of encouraging hostile activities within our country was up, they broke off economic relations with Albania. China has had and continues to have the aim of transforming the into a springboard, or creating in .this pain of Europe a political, economic and ideological field where from it can act in the direction of th( revisionist countries such as Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland as well as in the direction of such independent and sovereign states as Greece and Turkey. In this way it wanted to build up Chinese influence in Europe and counter Soviet influence.
But China’s opening to Europe is not confined only to the Balkans. China has declared itself an ardent champion of the European Common Market and United Europe, that is, of European enslaving capital. Since then it has established relations with the European Common Market, and, what is more, appointed its own representative to this organization, though it does not figure among its members. All-round relations between the capitalist countries of Europe and China are developing in a big way, especially, between China and the European Common Market member countries, and, in particular, the German Federal Republic. Therefore, Europe has become a target both for Soviet and Chinese expansion.China’s opening to Europe, and the creation of a favourable political and ideological area for its activity in the Balkans, are part of the Chinese strategy of instigation of war. The Chinese have been crying themselves hoarse for many years now with warnings about an impending danger of war in Europe, that it is precisely here and nowhere else that social-imperialism will first launch the war. Therefore, they are calling on NATO to increase its military budgets to the extreme, and on the USA to dispatch more troops and neutron bombs to Europe, to lay nuclear mines from the North Pole to the Mediterranean, on the West European countries to dispatch troops and naval fleets to the Red Sea, the Indian Ocean and around Africa, in order to protect the oil and raw materials routes, in order to avoid being caught in difficulties as a result of an impending war.
As the aggressor it is, the Soviet Union may launch the war not only in Europe, but also in the Far East, against its number one enemy, as China declares itself to be. But this cannot happen, the Chinese leaders allege. China will have to work for its modernization,, till the year 2000. Meanwhile, the superpowers may clash among themselves in Europe, the European peoples may be burnt and killed by nuclear bombs, people may be wiped out by neutron radiation. By the time this catastrophe descends on the world, within 20 years, until the end of the century, China will have been through with its modernization,, programs and become a superpower; then, it will be able to establish its domination over the world without firing a shot!
The open statements of the Chinese leadership to the effect that war between US imperialism and Europe, on the one hand, and the Soviet Union, on the other, will be declared by the latter in a very near future, express the Chinese strategy whose aim is to drive the Soviet Union into attacking Europe and avoid Chinese involvement in a war in the Far East. In this context, it is quite clear that the aim of Hua Kuo feng’s coming to the Balkans is t situation in this area, to set loggerheads and lash up the to upset the present the Balkan peoples at third world war hysteria. Regarding the Balkans as «a powder keg», just as the European and US imperialists have always done, the Chinese leadership thinks that some crown prince, can easily be killed here and then war will break out in Europe. The world must not forget Sarayevo.
But the Chinese leadership makes a miscalculation, not because the revisionist Soviet Union is not an aggressive imperialism and does not dream of occupying, oppressing and exploiting the peoples, but because the imperialist Soviet Union will surely attack first that part of the world where its interests are greatest and the link in the chain of the countries it plans to attack is weakest. This is what the Soviet Union is practically doing with its various acts of interference in Africa. In the present day situation, it is more probable that it will launch its offensive against China rather than against Europe. The war of the Soviet Union against NATO would be a large scale world war, a nuclear war. Besides, the USA wishes and strives to see the two imperialist powers, the Soviet Union and China, clash with and destroy each other first. US imperialism, just as Soviet social-imperialism and China, is well aware of its own interests and knows where it can draw profit from.
Therefore, the calculations of Chinese imperialism to set Europe ablaze, its attempts to instigate war between the Soviet Union, on the one hand, and the United States of America and its allies, on the other, for the sake of its own hegemonic interests, cannot be realized.
But the warmongering plans of the Chinese leaders are unrealizable, also, due to another, very important reason, namely, that they meet with resistance and opposition on the part of the anti imperialist and peace loving forces, progressive public opinion, the revolutionaries and the patriots everywhere in the world. The peoples of the Balkans and Europe have seen the horrors of the two world wars in their own countries and got wise to it that they must not let themselves fall a prey to the warmongering aims of the Chinese leaders. They know how to defend themselves and how to beat the aggressors.
History teaches the peoples of the Balkans and Europe that reconciliation with the policy of instigation of imperialist war, in the name of whatever aim it is done, spell disaster both for freedom and national independence, and for general security and peace. They can never mistake the fire brand Hua Kuo feng brings from Peking to set the war cauldrons boiling in the Balkans and Europe for an olive branch.
They are aware that war on a European and world scale can be avoided not by listening to the ominous Chinese sermons instigating imperialist war, which Lenin considered a crime, but by opposing the aggressive policy and plans of war preparations by US imperialism, Soviet social-imperialism, and all other imperialisms, including also that of Hua Kuo feng’s China.
Therefore, anyone who joins in, or plays, the Chinese game today, not only stands in opposition to the lofty interests of his own people. bat also doses new threats to other peoples, joins those who want and instigate war.
In their press reports from Belgrade and Peking the two sides throw flowers to each other and in hackneyed general formulas refer to various problems the two presidents discussed during their lengthy meetings. We do not know in concrete what they spoke about Albania, but we one convinced that they must have spoken also against it. This does not intimidate the Albanian people. They have made and are making it clear that nothing will catch them unawares, nor will they ever be lacking in vigilance. They will foil all anti Albanian plans. whoever may concoct them convinced at the same time that they will enjoy the support of the Yugoslav people, the Chinese people and certainly, the support of the other peoples of the Balkans.
The aim of Hua Kuo feng’s visit to Yugoslavia, as the official agreements concluded there indicate among other things, was to publicly proclaim the complete and final “reconciliation” between the Communist Party of China and the League of Communists of Yugoslavia.
In the past, Hua Kuo feng and his coterie that lead China now, had adopted an allegedly pronounced “critical” position towards Yugoslavia and its home and foreign policy. Whereas now it is precisely: the Chinese leaders who are lavishing greatest praise on the Yugoslav revisionist trend and those who lead, it. By going to Belgrade like a repentant son asking his father for forgiveness, Hua Kuo feng seems to have been impatiently waiting for an occasion to redress the old wrongs the leadership of the CP of China had allegedly done to this anti-Marxist trend, and to call it a “genuine Marxist Leninist” trend in the same way as the new leadership of the CP of China regards itself as being “genuinely Marxist Leninist”, though in reality it is a revisionist leadership. Things were exactly the same as when Khrushchev went on a visit to Belgrade in 1955 and knelt before Tito, putting the blame for the criticism of Yugoslav revisionism on Stalin. Now the Chinese leaders too declare that their, “erroneous” stand towards Yugoslavia had allegedly been imposed on them by Stalin and the meetings of communist parties. As is seen, when it comes to denigrating Stalin and Marxism Leninism. the Chinese leaders do not feel ashamed to adopt and repeat by rote Khrushche’s theses and resort to his despicable methods.
By making self criticism of their mistakes and bowing down before the Yugoslavs, the Chinese leaders showed their readiness to accord economic, political, ideological and other aid to Yugoslavia where capitalist self administration has been established.
Hua Kuo feng laboured to present his visit to Yugoslavia as evidence to the existence of complete ideological unity between the two countries and parties, which rely on “Marxism Leninism,” “have similar experience,” “wage a common struggle,” etc. In reality, he is seeking unity and union with the traitors to Marxism Leninism in order to fight socialist and the revolution. Choosing Belgrade, this longstanding centre of modern revisionism, to swear his loyalty to Marxism Leninism, Hua Kuo feng proves by his own words in what quagmire of opportunism and demagogy the Chinese leadership is wriggling.He did not fail to bring forth the policy of national equality the League of Communists of Yugoslavia has been pursuing as evidence of “the implementation of the scientific theory of Marxism Leninism in the specific conditions of Yugoslavia,” either. . The Chinese give their support for the policy of the Yugoslav revisionists in the alleged fair solution to the problems of national minorities because the latter need it badly. Chinese logic is strange enough. Mao Tse-tung considered the adjustments made after the Second World War in Europe unfair and proposed to have them rectified, while Hua Kuo feng considers the unjust decisions of the 1913 Conference of Ambassadors of the Great Powers on the Balkans fair. But it should be said that Hua Kuo feng is not in a position to judge whether or not the questions of national minorities in Yugoslavia have been correctly, solved. The national minorities living in Yugoslavia today are in a better position to judge this.
The Peking press, with “Renmin Ribao” in the van, has exhausted the arsenal of Chinese compliments in its description of Hua Kuo feng’s visit to Yugoslavia. The organ of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China writes, “Hua Kuo feng’s visit to Yugoslavia complies with the aspirations of the peoples of the whole world.” This may be the desire of the Chinese leadership, but world public opinion does not share this view. The collaboration between the two parties has “deep roots,” the League of Communists of Yugoslavia is a “glorious Party,” writes the Chinese newspaper. It is a wonder how these roots grew so deep so soon. But the Chinese propagandists do not feel ashamed to use such hollow sounding catch words. They do not feel ashamed, either, to say that “the League of Communists of Yugoslavia applies Marxism Leninism to, and builds socialism in, Yugoslavia.”
No revolutionary, no progressive man in the world can accept Yugoslav revisionism which Hua Kuo feng praises and advertizes as a variant of the theory of the construction of socialism. Far from having anything in common with the scientific theory of Marxism Leninism, this socialism, has been refuted by Yugoslavia’s everyday practice, which reveals that socialism is not being built there.
Just as the efforts of other opportunists who have engaged in such advertizing so far, Chinese efforts, too, to deck out Yugoslav revisionism in a socialist,, and Marxist Leninist, garb, cannot be successful, either.
The tight rope policy of the Yugoslav leadership has never brought nor will it ever bring any good to the peoples of Yugoslavia. The great diplomacy, of President Tito, which has transformed Yugoslavia into a dependent, not independent, country, hangs this country on China’s hook, on another imperialist power, into which China has been transformed now. The new friendship with China, so “deeply rooted,” as “Remain Ribao” claims, increases the dangers to the peoples of Yugoslavia and the Balkans.
Although the bosom friends of the Yugoslav revisionists see into the dangers arising from this juggling policy of Yugoslavia, they still allow and instigate it. In the present juncture, it seems to them that they are weakening Soviet social-imperialism; and they think that they are all powerful and capable of avoiding the catastrophe when the time comes and contradictions sharpen. They find it natural for the Soviet naval fleet to ride at anchor at Yugoslav ports, and smile at the Chinese formula of “struggle against hegemonism,” which they know who it is addressed to. But the peoples of the world, of Europe and, especially, the Balkan peoples of Greece, Turkey, and Albania do not accept this.
By uniting ideologically and politically with Yugoslavia and Rumania, the Chinese leadership intends to further consolidate and deepen the political and economic positions it has gained in these two countries. In this context, China will play a role by opening its market to Yugoslavia and Rumania, which in the grave conditions of the existing crisis and with the great competitive power of the better goods of the capitalist countries. hardly find markets in other countries of the world.
The Chinese delegation concluded a large number of agreements on economic, trade and technical scientific cooperation with, and made various offers to both Rumania and Yugoslavia. The Chinese promises seem very generous on paper, at practice will show how they will be kept. But even now one thing is clear, namely the development of this broad cooperation, as the Chinese propaganda calls it, will be conditioned to a great extent by the influence China will succeed in exercising on these two countries and, especially, by their readiness to do China’s bidding. At the same time, the all-round ties of Rumania and Yugoslavia with the USA and the Soviet Union do not meet China’s ambitions in this field.
In his speeches Hua Kuo feng used such terms as “friendly relations,” “friendship and equality,” “mutual aid without strings attached,” “non interference in internal affairs,” “no privileges sought,” “opposition to dictate,” etc. Similar hypocritical and demagogic statements followed all chauvinistic, arbitrary and perfidious acts the Chinese leaders committed against our country. Those who believe them will soon be disillusioned.
During his visit to Rumania and Yugoslavia, Hua Kuo feng did not speak about “the third world,” or the Chinese theory of “three worlds,” as he did during Tito’s visit to Peking, but he made extensive and eloquent statements about the “nonaligned world.” On these questions, Chinese pragmatism seems to prevail over their “principled ideological stand.” But the praises lavished on Yugoslavia as “one of the founding countries” of the non aligned movement are a clumsy attempt on the part of the Chinese to cover up their claims for succession to the leadership of this movement.
The idea of “non alignment” serves the counterrevolution and the preservation of neo-colonialism. It is an attempt to deceive the peoples while inviting neo-colonialism to cede in regard to some worthless economic reforms; but which are important to those who give such hand outs. By giving such alms they want the peoples to place themselves completely under neo-colonialist hegemony and submit to it.
By praising “non alignment,” Hua Kuo feng, who poses as the champion of the “third world,” tries to show that his third world and the nonaligned world are one and the same thing, that the strategy of this world must suit the Chinese policy, that China, Peking, must be its centre. When he criticizes the Soviet social-imperialists of having tried to subject the movement of the nun aligned to their expansionist aims, he actually proves that he is contending with them to achieve the same objectives and the same aims.
But the peoples of the world need neither the theories of the “non aligned,” nor those of “three worlds.” These theories, advertized by the bourgeoisie and reaction with so much zeal and care do not favour the revolution and liberation struggles, but harm them. They do not assist the working masses and peoples in their revolutionary struggle to get rid of oppression and exploitation, to do away with the oppression and enslavement of their nations, to secure their freedom and national sovereignty, but, on the contrary, assist imperialism to preserve the existing status quo, to strengthen and perpetuate the odious capitalist and colonialist system.
The truth and we say it openly and frankly. just as we think and judge it will never destroy the friendship of our people with the Yugoslav and Chinese peoples, or with any other people. The Party of Labour and the PSR of Albania have never been afraid of airing their views openly. without hiding them behind formulas. The friendly peoples know and appraise our views.
But while we are defending our correct and principled policy, rumours are being spread from Peking and Belgrade that allegedly Albania’s stand assists Soviet social-imperialism. But no one believes these insinuations. With its policy and stand, socialist Albania has proved, and will prove at any time, to be an irreconcilable enemy of Soviet social-imperialism and US imperialism, or any other imperialism. The Albanian people who know very well where the dangers come from, will fight to defend their freedom, independence and sovereignty, and make their contribution also to the defence of their well wishing and peace loving neighbours who understand our unflinching stand, and the dangers posed by the imperialist powers, properly.
But rumours from Peking and from its friends about socialist Albania having allegedly taken the side of the Soviet Union, are spread in order to raise suspicions about the policy of the Albanian proletarian state. The whole world must know and rest assured that Albania does not stretch out a begging hand to any imperialist power, and that Albania’s territorial and coastal borders and space are inviolable.
Under its Constitution, socialist Albania does not accept nor will it ever accept credits from any foreign power. But in the capitalist and revisionist world there exists the mentality, which stems from the concrete reality, that no state, whether big or small can survive without foreign credits. With its example, socialist Albania will put an end to this mentality.
Just as until now, our country will continue to maintain normal trade relations with other states on the basis of mutual benefit. This does not violate in the slightest the principles sanctioned in our Constitution, but the imperialists, in pursuit of their evil aims, confound trade based on mutual interest with the granting of credits and aid, which are two entirely different things. Hence, their deduction that Albania is isolated and cannot walk on its own. But the opposite is and will be true. Sure of their own forces, unflinchingly confident in their future, and powerfully relying on the support and solidarity of international progressive opinion, the Albanian people, led by their Party of Labour, will boldly surmount all obstacles in their way, and carry the cause of socialism in Albania always forward.
The Party of Labour of Albania and the People’s Socialist Republic of Albania have long since warned against the intrigues of the superpowers and their attempts to stir up quarrels and conflicts in the Balkans. Comrade Enver Hoxha stated at the 6th Congress of the PLA, in November 1971: they did not make the Balkans a “powder keg” of themselves. It was the foreigners, the imperialists, who did this in the past, and it was they who held all the detonators in their hands. And they would like to bring about the same situation today. It is the duty of the Balkan peoples to cut all the fuses with the sword, so that peace and security may really be established in the Balkans.
It is only natural that our peoples need friends. But they should never become tools in the hands of foreigners to the detriment of the interest of any people or of all our peoples jointly.
These words of Comrade Enver Hoxha express the resolute and consistent stand of the Party, Government and people of Albania, which proceed from their desire and determination to live always in peace and friendship with the peoples of the Balkans and the whole world.