Published in Reorganization by the KKE (1918-1955):
The year 2006 was a milestone for Sino-African relations. Only the first half of the Chinese President Hu Jintao and Prime Minister Wen Jiabao visited 10 African countries. In November of that year took place in Beijing in the third session of the Forum on Sino-African Cooperation (FOCAC), involving 48 of the 53 African countries. In January, no, last year, China published the “document of Chinese policy in Africa” by presenting the objectives of the Chinese presence and the means to achieve them. On January 30, and the Chinese president goes to visit 10 new African countries.
Bilateral trade has jumped from 10 billion. In 2000 to $ 55 billion. $ 2006, making China the third largest trading partner after the U.S. and France. 156 loans to 31 countries, worth $ 1.38 billion donated by China in 2004, and truncate their duties on 190 products. By the end of 2005, China has undertaken over 720 projects in Africa, awarded 18,000 scholarships, sent 15,000 medical personnel who treated her roughly 170 million Africans and political support.
The many rewards: raw materials and energy sources (see below for oil), African support for China on human rights committee of the UN and the withdrawal of the Olympic Games in 2008. And despite the low purchasing power of Africans, Chinese and competitors know that this is offset by the same population of Africans.
Historically, the period of Mao and Chu Lai In the absence of significant economic exchanges across political and mutual projects such as the Tanzania-Zambia Railway in the ’70s, whose existence is in China. Just $ 770 million was a record volume of bilateral trade in 1977.Apo the early ’90s, however, the emphasis was on “cooperation” for the “exploration and exploitation” of energy sources, technology and trade.
China, unlike its competitors, sharing the same historical experiences of Africans. With the objective of “peaceful development”, bases its presence and its “independent foreign policy of peace” with over 5 principles: Sincerity, equality, mutual benefit, solidarity and common development. Words like “Reciprocity”, “Respect for Diversity,” “Peace adorn every statement and declaration by Chinese leaders for Africa. “Multi-polismos”, “Democracy in International Relations,” Equal “,” Friendship, “” harmony “sound pleasant to the African leaders. On the basis of the above benefits, most walks are positive about the Chinese presence, despite the ill-treatment of African workers (eg continuous chalkorychon riots in Zambia, where China has entered the 4 0% copper), the displacement of African traders from the market and cases of environmental destruction (eg, Gabon).
The military presence of China in Africa is becoming increasingly important over the presence of “peacekeeping missions” (3,000, currently in Liberia, Namibia, Congo, Sudan), train armies, promote cooperation in defense technology ( eg Sudan), while “concerned” for the smuggling of light weapons (the “legal” trade, however, which is leading).
Institutional framework for cooperation at the highest level, apart from relations with the OAU is the Forum on Sino-African Cooperation, and were created under the Program for Sino-African Cooperation in Economic and Social Development (2000) and Action Plan 2004-2006 Addis Ababa, where he held the second session, while a new Programme of Action adopted at the recent third session.
China targeted as the next session in 2009:
1) to double aid to Africa
2) to provide $ 3 billion in preferential loans and other $ 2 billion in trade credits,
3) to subsidize $ 5 billion Chinese enterprises to act in Africa
4) to build the headquarters of the Organization of African Unity
5) to transform the outdated 2005 interest-free loans,
6) exempt from customs duties 440 African products
7) to establish 3 to 5 areas of trade and economic cooperation
8) to train 15,000 African professionals;
9) to send 100 scientists specializing in agriculture,
10) to build 30 hospitals, 30 centers prevention and treatment of malaria
11) to establish 100 agricultural colleges
12) to double the number of beneficiaries of scholarships.
At the meeting last November, 70 million agreed to give the Chinese Export-Import Bank and 1 million from the People’s Bank in West African Development Bank.
“Friendship, Peace, Cooperation, Development” was the slogan that won the third session of the Forum was established with a Chinese proposal in 2000, where, in addition to promoting bilateral relations and the “deep inspiration” proclaimed by the African leaders that their causing the Chinese “development” model, participants made it clear that the UN must be reformed, with greater recognition of competence in GP performance and position of the Security Council permanent member in the African country.
Despite pronouncements that are full of references to ‘rate’ of the parties, there are also phrases that reveal the true nature of the Chinese presence: Program for Sino-African Cooperation in Economic and Social Development (2000) refers (paragraph 6 ) to “payment in kind” to “ease the financial burden borne by Africa and to promote exports to China”: a purely colonial-style agreement. Just as dust in the eyes may be perceived aversion to in paragraph 12 of that text, for “research and development of metallurgical sources” that China is “compatible”, as if the mind “to promote the investment” in this field for … ‘mutual benefit’ (see below, if Angola). And it is no coincidence that in the Action Plan 2004-2006 Addis Ababa, African leaders, as vassals, “believe” the Chinese participation in “peace operations in Africa, and the call to” intensify “its presence there.
It is becoming clear, therefore, that the African people have nothing better to expect growing Chinese political, economic and military presence: and that the maneuvers of their leaders before the suitors the candidates engaged in a relentless competition to build larger African share market and raw materials, distorts the demand for pan-African independence and unity. Highlighting the nature of the Chinese presence is not an implicit support of its competitors. The Communists do not want the position of caliph caliph, but working for the abolition of the caliphate.
China Petroleum & Africa
China bases its 25% of its oil imports from Africa, an amount that translates into 7% of world oil postal traffic volume. In Africa operate 3 state-owned Chinese oil company CNPC, CNOOC and Sinopec. Chinese activity in the oil exists in Sudan, Angola, Nigeria, Algeria, Equatorial Guinea, Congo and Gabon, and talks are to invest in Chad (where they come into conflict with Exxon & Chevron), Libya and the Central African Republic.
Typical is the case of Sudan, which is the fourth supplier of oil to China after Saudi Arabia, Iran and Oman. H China has access to both the northern oil-producing provinces of Muglad (benefit 50% of oil pumped) and Melut, where the Chevron once made inquiries, and covets and undeveloped province of southern Sudd, from where the Canadian Talisman retired in 2003 after by constant armed attacks. It is no coincidence, therefore, that in 2004 China abstained from the vote on UN Resolution 1564, which dictated an embargo on arms sales to Sudan.
Equally typical is the way to achieve the contract: The decision by Shell in 2003 to withdraw from Angola, paved the way for CNPC to operate the second largest oil producer in sub-Saharan Africa, and after the 2 billion loan. $ Interest rate only 1.5% for 17 years, which gave the Chinese government. The conclusion took place when the application for a similar loan from the IMF was dismissed for “suspicion of corruption.” 25% of oil resources by going to China, as provided in the related term loan, the Chinese will have the lion’s share (70%) earnings.