Category Archives: Afghanistan

PCMLV: Editorial Revolutionary Steel No. 11, September 2011

Organ of the Central Committee PCMLV

Capitalism in its upper stage (imperialism) remains in the decomposition process, rules and laws are violated without regard for themselves, the superstructure “legal” mounted at the end of World War II no longer serves its purpose. Such is the effect of the crisis, that treaties, agreements and international organizations are becoming a nuisance to the need to implement measures “to end the crisis,” according to its logic operators.

In each country and the world government control, the structures of bourgeois democracy begin to hinder the real government, the monopoly of large corporations. These measures apply to take control directly, but trying to keep the discourse civil rights is nothing other than what happened in Spain with the constitutional amendment, or more bloody in Libya, where large corporations are distributing oil wells, refineries and contracts “reconstruction”, as they did in Eastern Europe, Iraq, Afghanistan and how they’re doing in the rest of the Maghreb and other regions will do so, this is just the beginning of the imperialist offensive to the real threats to their economic and political system of domination is in deep crisis.

These situations, typical of the general crisis of the general crisis of capitalism, they foreshadow the third stage of the same expressions with economic, political and social unconcealed, but also has serious consequences for workers and the people who are losing their rights to an immense bourgeois onslaught.

In the face of popular demonstrations in Europe and North Africa, advancing social and leftist projects in Latin America, the wave of protests by petty-bourgeois sectors and trade unions, the radicalization of youth and the greater activity of truly revolutionary organizations , especially proletarian character, acts imperialist direction before being wrapped by these expressions of discontent and strife, cause and accelerate the decomposition to try to impose their fascist-style authoritarian project, for which the terror, the drug, illicit enterprises, despair, religious sects play a role.

They create a climate of fear about the future, fear about the future, suitable for the implementation of fascist capitalist model, which can control the agitation of the masses by means of subjugation and violence to impose the adjustment measures.

We are on the verge of a more aggressive imperialist stage that will undoubtedly lead to popular mobilization and violence in a direct call to the attempt to impose unilateral bourgeois domination, leaving aside the hypocrisy of his “bourgeois democracy” to enter in a directly to fascism.

For revolutionaries, especially for the Marxist-Leninists, this is not something unknown, our classics and our theoretical and practical experience realize these phenomena during the first and the second stage of the general crisis of capitalism, but also give us indication of how face this period shall be of wars, and revolutions, where the most important is to strengthen the organizations of struggle of the proletariat. Supported by the action of the revolutionary masses in the worker-peasant discontent attract other layers and take urgent need of the conquest of political power to break with the capitalist relations of production.

The situations of violence promoted and encouraged by capitalism tell us that live in complex times, the repression against the revolutionary class act and will be on the agenda, no shortage of excuses for it, from the need to replace unions by other structures ” modern, “flexible” “to the need to” sacrifice for the fatherland “, operators have always devised ways of manipulation to try to deceive the workers, and when they no longer serve them, because workers have no conscience and we fall, then resort to outright violence.

Violence reactionary, fascist organization must be answered and proletarian revolution, only then can we truly overcome the crisis and build a world of happiness for the majority.

Communist Party of Mexico Marxist-Leninist (PCM-ML): Iran& the new source of imperialist war

These days it meets the security council of the United Nations Organization (UNO), consists of China, the United States, Russia, France, Britain plus Germany, who is a permanent member of this organization. Among the topics to be discussed is that of Iran, who asked to stop uranium enrichment, arguing that this is used to produce nuclear weapons.

At that, following the threat from the United States to make a military incursion “preventive”, now they call it a military invasion against Iran is preparing, under the pretext of stopping the threat, because it is speculated that the alleged weapons produced in Iran go into the hands of terrorists.

Four years after the invasion of Iraq, which has sunk further into poverty as a result of the imperialist invasion of the Americans and their European allies, where hundreds of civilians have been killed and thousands fleeing to other countries in the Middle East for no be victims of the war, now plans to do the same with Iran, the argument, the fight against terrorism. To “protect democracy and world peace”, are used to war.

Since Bush has not quite been able to convince the Americans to make a military attack on Iran, which tries to do at all costs, he can not ignore the fact that Iranian territory are large reserves of natural gas and oil plus it is committed to its tendency to monopolize nuclear power, set representing a large booty, especially for a country like the United States, which depends on the hydrocarbon reserves of other countries.

Because of this, Yankee imperialism makes use of all tools available, why resort to the UN, who has always been subordinated to the interests of imperialism and has not played more than a puppet role in conflicts between countries, always safeguarding the interests of the financial oligarchy.

The UN, on the one hand criticizes Iran, Lebanon and Syria are making weapons, countries that certainly have not aligned to the American policy, so they are considered part of the “axis of evil” and hotbeds of terrorist groups , but at the same time, it is unable to criticize the military-industrial complex the world’s largest, and the use of weapons of mass destruction that have used the Yankees and their allies in Afghanistan and Iraq, or the fact that progress in Israel As military technology.

Another argument against Iran is supplying weapons to Iraqi insurgents, the Afghans, the Taliban and Al Qaeda, in addition to being accused of meddling in internal affairs of Iraq and Afghanistan, which threatens peace in the region, the fact is that for years, who has interfered in internal affairs of other countries and has been Yankee imperialism. One example was the assistance they provided the government and the American army to the Afghans against the Soviets, the nod to the Iraqi invasion of Iran during the Bush administration, these, just to name a few, and that Yankee imperialism has been characterized by meddling in internal affairs of several African and Latin American countries.

One way to pressure the Iranian government to stop enriching uranium, is the threat of an economic embargo already living higher than the cancellation of credit to Iranian companies. To put pressure on other countries to line up in favor of imperialism and their clearance to a higher pressure and economic sanctions prepared to countries whose companies to maintain investment with Iran.

It would be rare for U.S. imperialism and its allies use the political conflicts in Iran, which look like they did in Iraq and Afghanistan to help opponents of the current government to unleash major internal conflicts which may allow a ‘pre-emptive raid ” or “humanitarian aid” in the way of the facts would mean the presence of peacekeepers from the UN, better known as blue helmets, as already happens in other countries in the Middle East and the Middle East.

Faced with accusations of American imperialism and the members of the Security Council of the UN, arguing that Iran defends right to use uranium to make electricity, which did not use the uranium for nuclear weapons production, arguing that it are taken as valid before the judges, since Iran does not submit fully to the designs of imperialism, although it is not an anti-imperialist and democratic country.

The threat Iran becomes dormant when one considers that the geographic region in which it is, is surrounded by countries and places where troops or peacekeepers Yankees such as Afghanistan, Iraq, the Persian Gulf and Turkey . For powerful countries with nuclear weapons, as is the case of Pakistan and countries in the region are staunch allies of American imperialism, as in the case of Israel.

PCMLE: “The real emancipation of the peoples is the revolution and socialism”

From En Marcha, #1545
Organ of the Central Committee of the Marxist-Leninist Communist Party of Ecuador
August 19 to 25, 2011

As part of the work that the International Conference of Marxist-Leninist Parties and Organizations is carrying out, last July a meeting of the Latin American parties took place. At the meeting were the Revolutionary Communist Party of Brazil, the Communist Party of Colombia (Marxist-Leninist), the Communist Party of Labor of the Dominican Republic, the Marxist-Leninist Communist Party of Ecuador, the Communist Party of Mexico (Marxist-Leninist) and the Marxist-Leninist Communist Party of Venezuela.

After evaluating the work that these parties are carrying out in each of the countries and discussing the most important events that are taking place in the region and the world, the meeting approved a Political Declaration that we reproduce below.

U.S. imperialism and its European allies: France, England, Spain, Italy, are trying to manipulate the just struggle of the Arab peoples, to channel the indignation of the working masses and the youth towards a change of names, maintaining the economic and social structures and the weight of dependency.

After reviewing the latest events in our countries, in Latin America and the world we declare:

1. The stories told by imperialism claiming that there is a recovery from the crisis are falling apart every day, with the increasing numbers of unemployed, the decrease in production, the worsening of the fiscal deficits and the increase in the foreign debt in most of the countries of Europe, in Japan and the U.S.A., which seriously affect the supposed stability of the capitalist system and sharpening its inherent contradictions. This prolonged crisis that is affecting all the countries of the world shows not only the failure of the recovery policies implemented by imperialism, but also the decay of the system, which is mortally wounded and incapable of guaranteeing the well-being and freedom for which humanity is struggling.

2. The struggle of the working class, the working people, the youth and the peoples is spreading all over the world. Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Jordan, Syria, Yemen and other countries of North Africa and Asia Minor are an example of the struggle against the reactionary dictatorships and governments, who with the applause of the bourgeoisies and the imperialist powers have sunk these peoples into the deepest crisis, hunger and the cruelest misery, despite the immense wealth generated by the exploitation of oil, gas and other natural resources. In addition, with the complicity of the UN they resort to military intervention, to the bombing of the civilian population in Libya, using the pretext of the fight against tyranny, all with the aim of guaranteeing the established order and the continuity of all its profits that are the product of colonization and exploitation of these peoples. We completely reject the foreign intervention in Libya. It is up to the Libyan people themselves to resolve the problems of their country. No more military aggression and intervention in Afghanistan and Palestine! We Communists raise the banner of self-determination, sovereignty, well-being and freedom!

3. Active and valiant opposition to imperialism and the reactionary governments is also alive in Europe. In Greece, Turkey, Italy, Spain, Ireland, France, England and other countries of Europe there has been a general rejection of the reduction in wages, the pension reforms, the increase in taxes, privatizations and the reduction of the budgets for health care, education, housing and in general of all the legislative programs by which the crisis is being placed on the shoulders of the working masses. Numerous strikes and mobilizations are showing an important revival of the working class and youth that is again speaking out for unity and the political initiative to confront the recovery policies and to reject the reactionary governments. The great mobilizations of youths that are taking place in Spain and other European countries deserve particular mention, which show the exhaustion of bourgeois democracy and the search for roads to social liberation.

4. In Latin America the struggle continues, it is showing a greater advance and development. The structural adjustment policies implemented by most of the governments in the last years have not achieved their expected objectives, much less do they represent measures aimed at the well-being of the masses. The different struggles that are developing in our countries calling for higher wages, labor stability, respect for the right to association, negotiation, collective contracts and strikes, the rejection of outsourcing, the demands for health care and education, greater rights and liberties are arousing the ever greater participation of numerous organizations on the continent that do not kneel before the measures of the bourgeois governments and that struggle for political freedom for the people. The student youth in Chile together with the working masses and the Mapuche people are carrying out large mobilizations in defense of freedom, public education and democracy. The desire for change is breaking through in our various countries, large contingents of the masses are participating in the political struggle and are taking up the banner of working for the victory of democratic and progressive governments that really promote the defense of sovereignty, respect of human rights, well-being and political freedom. The democratic and anti-imperialist tendency in Latin America is an unquestionable fact that is opening the way, is growing and offering numerous possibilities for the advance of the revolution.

5. The rise through elections of several democratic and progressive governments in Latin America constitute important steps in that direction. Nevertheless today, the existence and continuity of these governments is threatened by the rightist offensive of imperialism and the local bourgeoisies that have not given up the privileges that they have enjoyed in our countries for centuries. The offensive of imperialism and the oligarchies has reversed the direction of several of those governments, which have been transformed into open defenders of the capitalist system, of foreign domination; into a form of the old ways of governing, into those who carry out repression against the working masses and the youth, into prettifiers of representative democracy and promoters of developmentalist and reformist measures. In fact, these governments and history show that real change, the social revolution and national liberation cannot be carried through to the end under the leadership of bourgeois and petty bourgeois classes and parties. That responsibility belongs to the working class, the working masses, the peoples and the youth, to the revolutionary party of the proletariat, to the genuinely revolutionary organizations and parties.

6. Imperialism, its allies and servants, the local bourgeoisies in all the countries are persisting in their reactionary policies of repressing the struggle of the working masses, of the indigenous peoples and the youth by fire and sword, at the time that they try to co-opt the social movement by means of social welfare policies and one reform or another. One expression of those policies is the presence of U.S. imperialist troops and those of their Latin American servants in Haiti. In the same way it is continuing the trade embargo against Cuba and actions aimed at subverting the Venezuelan process. The persecution, jailing and assassination of social fighters and revolutionaries are irrefutable testimony of the fact that the struggle continues and that repression, however harsh and bloodthirsty it may be, cannot do away with the ideals and the determination to fight for social and national liberation. We emphatically express our solidarity with the comrades who are suffering repression and torture in Honduras, Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, Paraguay and Peru. In particular we demand the freedom of the Ecuadorean student leader Marcelo Rivera, who remains in prison, accused and condemned as a terrorist by the Correa government, for defending university autonomy.

7. The betrayal by the government of Rafael Correa and the struggle of the Bolivian workers against “the gasolinazo” in Bolivia are making clear not only the real limitation of these governments, but also the need to make clear to the working class and the social and mass organizations what is the real road to social change. Experience shows that neither reformism nor class conciliation can lead to change. Real change, the genuine emancipation of our peoples is the revolution and socialism, which is only possible if there is a revolutionary political vanguard capable of pushing through a genuinely revolutionary program at the head of the struggles of the working class, the working masses and the peoples.

8. The continuity and development of the struggle of the workers, the peoples and the youth in the countries of Latin America is guaranteed by historical tradition and the present combats, the perspective is the developing along the road of the social revolution. Our Continent is and will be the scene of great liberating struggles and we Marxist-Leninist communists will fulfill and affirm our position as shock troops of the revolution and socialism.

9. The strengthening of the right-wing, corporatist and social welfare policies in most of the governments of Latin America will not make us back down from the search for true social and national emancipation. We Marxist-Leninist parties of Latin America reiterate our commitment to link ourselves boldly and decisively to the struggles that the working class, the working people, the peasantry, the youth, the women and the peoples in general are developing, as well as our irrevocable decision to advance in the unity and leadership of their struggles, winning them for the revolution and socialism.

10. We make the words of Lenin ours: “If in the course of the struggle we win the majority of the workers to our side – not only the majority of the exploited, but the majority of the exploited and oppressed – we will really win”.

July, 2011

Studies V: PCOT on Foreign Affairs (II)

This post is a part of a new series of posts which will consist of translations and excerpts from the communiques, statements, pamphlets and other literature from left-wing political parties in the Arab world, especially Tunisia (others as well, Egypt, Algeria and Mauritania in particular). The selections will focus on foreign policy, women’s issues, relations with other political factions (mainly Islamists and other leftist tendencies), ideology, rhetoric and general worldview. The purpose of this series is to put into English elements of the contemporary Arab political discourse which are generally neglected in western and English-language reportage and analysis while the of Islamist tendency receives extensive, if not excessive coverage. The translations in this series should not be taken as this blogger endorsing or promoting the content of particular materials: the objective is to increase access to and understanding of the contemporary Arab left by making its perspectives known, especially in areas of interest and relevance to English-speakers. This series will include both leftist and Arab nationalist [party] documents, statements, communiques, articles and so on. The series will attempt to touch on as many of the main (and interesting) leftist parties as possible.

Below are translations of communiques and articles from the Tunisian Communist Workers Party (PCOT) dealing with international and foreign issues. Two are articles dealing with macro-political/economic issues — the global financial crisis and global warming and its impact on poverty — from 2009 and 2010. One deals with the problem of anti-immigrant (and anti-Muslim) sentiment in Europe, mostly in relation to the economic down turn and the exploitative character of capitalism, as the party sees it. Another is a communique mourning the death of Pascale Fantodji, a Beninois communist leder, from 2010.

These documents were selected because: (1) they illustrate, in part, the party’s ideological and cultural posture at the international level; (2) they deal with relatively contemporary problems in global political economy and thus show how the party applies its political outlook to the world around it in relatively abstract terms as opposed to strictly concrete, practical or tactical terms; (3) these communiques help in understanding the party’s own self image as not just as an internationally-oriented revolutionary party and thus assist in informing readers about some of the frames and its motivation with respect to and approach to particular political questions inside Tunisia and the Arab countries. The authors of these documents, like many leftists, view the global financial crisis as evidence of a crisis of capitalism that confirms the outline of Marxist thought. They view increasing European hostility towards immigrants, Muslims especially, at least in part as a function of capitalist exploitation of the working class and calls for a ”progressive anti-racist front” to advocate for the rights of workers in Europe and elsewhere. (This communique is especially relevant given the terrorist attacks in Norway on 22 July, carried out by an individual committed to the anti-immigrant/Muslim tendency in Europe and acting on what he saw as the logical conclusion of that movement, based on the “Eurabian thesis”.) The communique regarding Fantodji is included to show its links with other African communist movements. Other documents dealing with foreign affairs/international issues will follow in later posts.

1. Broad international trends

“The Crisis of the Capitalist System deepens”


DATE: 11 December, 2009

The repercussions of the capitalist economic crisis are still coming and affecting the productive sections as well as real estate and banking in the form of a statement from the government of Dubai, UAE on its inability to pay its debts owed to international banks and its request to postpone repayments for a period of at least six months surprising the various stock exchanges of the world and increasing the severity of the financial crisis ongoing for more than a year [now].

At the time the media began to talk about the beginning of an economic recovery and overcoming the crisis came the real estate crisis in Dubai at the end of November a bomb in the markets, especially since it had been considered a model for countries that were moving from the local to the global. It was also characterized by large projects in the area of real estate and investment in ports and global stock exchanges. Dubai was considered a Tiger that navigated world markets and imposed itself on the globalized economy and some went as far as to substitute it for the GCC’s dependence on oil and exaggerated its image with mega projects such as the floating islands in the shape of palm trees and called to the rich world boasting of the possessing the tallest skyscrapers in the world, etc. [. . .] But this surge crashed in the so-called financial bubble costing over $80 billion for several companies such as Dubai World and Nakheel. Owned by government princes in Dubai were forced to seek assistance and intervention from neighboring Abu Dhabi to pump in the necessary funds in the form of debt ($15 billion).

The reaction in the stock markets was quick and immediate, as shares of Gulf companies fell and savings of the oil countries in international banks and a major loss of confidence in the future of many companies and especially Dubai Ports which invested in the most important international ports (London, America, Asia, etc.). And then came Putin’s pessimistic comments and the IMF paradoxically in a short time (four months) confirming that the financial crisis was ongoing. The repercussions affected small investors and employees who deposited their money in Islamic banks in Dubai and the various Gulf countries and affected workers and employees who lost their jobs as well. Real estate prices have fallen by more than a half and land stocks to more than 10% impacted by the dollar and oil prices.

It can be concluded that the Marxist analysis is valid in regard to a crisis crisis of capitalism would affect all capitalism economies, without exception, and negatively impact people’s lives and will not be salvaged except for by getting rid of the capitalist mode of production and replacing it with the socialist pattern. Let us develop our own capabilities through the initiation of working class struggle and the formation of a global front against imperialism and against the impact of neoliberal globalization.

“The Poor — The favorite victims of climate change!”


DATE: 20 February, 2010

It is confirmed by many international organizations that changes seen in the Earth’s climate are due to increased human activity in industry and technology and that the resulting toxic gasses are damaging humans, animals and plants and will eventually lead to increased rates of hunger, especially in dependent [developing] countries.

It is well known that greenhouse gas emissions are increasing significantly and frighteningly from the capitalist countries’s manufacturing, especially from their participation in the arms race, which will affect the rate of food production such that the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has confirmed that the distribution of food production by the year 2050 will witness dire consequences and may face a decline between 9% and 12% as a result of rising temperature as a result of damage to the ozone layer. At the time that capitalist countries involved in the contamination of the Earth did not agree on a protocol setting out the proportion of greenhouse gasses while the systems of agriculture and forestry will be affected and concentrate on carbon dioxide and change forms of rainfall patterns, along with increasing the spread of weeds, pests and diseases. It is expected that the deepening and spread of droughts, heat waves, floods and violent storms will continue for the foreseeable future.

It is natural, in such circumstances and a changing climate, there would be increases in fluctuations in agricultural production especially in poor parts of the world. At another level these fluctuations in climate will negatively affect food security and safety with a wide spread of diseases transmitted by water, air and even by food itself, which will generate a significant contraction in production and productivity. Naturally the working class will also be affected with increasing rates of poverty, hunger and death in their midst.

Many studies have not ruled out the idea that the African continent is one of the areas most affected by climate change due to its being one of the areas more vulnerable to the affects of drought, floods and hurricanes. Being the poorest in the world and least secure in the area of food, it [Africa] is assumed to see irreparable damage on this level. Our country Tunisia is not isolated from climactic fluctuation, as the impact of climate change on Tunisian fisheries and forestry cannot be resisted when its economy is shaky and its people’s incomes are limited. And the regime will no longer be able to reduce its negative impacts at a time that we do not see or hear serious voices calling for the defense of the environment or the ocean only through the official discourse of the wooden system or from some parties and organizations that were unable to express their views and the distortion of our country’s environmental policy because of the suppression of freedoms, especially freedom for the media and the freedom to organize and demonstrate [. . .]

A new strategy to reduce climate change and its impact on food security and for mankind is an immediate priority for humanity and the international community to put it forward strongly and to defend it and not be trapped by the capitalist powers who are active in emitting toxic gasses, pressuring them to at least reduce the calamity which would be disastrous to humankind in general and the poor in particular. And it must also be noted that these capitalist countries pay to wage war against and use chemicals to kill people in Palestine, Lebanon, Iraq and Afghanistan [. . .] In so doing they kill the Earth’s crust from which we eat and drink, leaving frightening effects for many years on the land, water and air. These poles of capitalism must be shamed, exposed and isolated for killing people not only because of their own greed and their stealing of riches but also because this contributes to the eradication of life on Earth.

2. Racism in Europe

“On the growing manifestations of racism in Europe”


DATE: 11 December, 2009

The capitalist system is adopting rightist governments in order to cope with its suffocating economic crisis and highlight the extreme fascist groups to leverage chauvinist and racist slogans against immigrants in order to turn the class struggle away from its course. Capitalists find an outlet in fascist propaganda that feeds them moral and material support and disposes of accountability for the real perpetrators of the crisis.

Many racist laws have been passed for some time against migrant workers against Arabs and Muslims. Racist laws have boomed in light of a lack of awareness and weakness on the part of the forces of the left and its fragmentation. The latest of these laws were voted in in Switzerland in a recent popular referendum preventing the construction of minarets in a country with a right wing government and nearly seven million people, including three hundred thousand Muslims with three minarets, one of which is in use. This law is not intended to target the building of minarets but to strike at the freedom of belief and toleration between religions and cultures.

These racist laws neutralize conflict and distract the toiling masses from the real cause of the crisis.

Numerous racist demonstrations and protests were organized against migrant workers in France on the border between France and Switzerland.

Generally, the variations of right-wing extremism is growing and expanding steadily in various parts of the world taking a number of forms such as media campaigns, the use of the arts (cinema, cartoons, songs) to take a sometime deadly character by targeting foreigners (Muslims and Arabs in particular) and their lives, honor and property.

Racist movements that divert attention from the reality of living conditions among the working class and nurture the extremest fundamentalist movements that thrive in such an environment then present themselves as victims and defenders of “identity.” They highlight the terrorist movements drowning the countries in blood and chaos and look for right-wing governments in order to export their crisis and place further restrictions on freedoms.

Confronting this racist tide is the task for of all revolutionary and progressive forces in all countries of the world. It cannot confront this force unless it unites its ranks in a progressive anti-racist front standing side by side with the movements of migrant workers to raise the slogan “We live here, we work here and we will stay here!” and to demand full equality between migrant and non-migrant workers in rights and obligations.

3. Solidarity with other communists

“A communique of condolences to the comrades in the Communist Party of Benin”


DATE: 7 April, 2010

Gone from us forever on Monday, 5 April is comrade Pascale Fantodji, First Secretary of the Communist Party of Benin, we sent this cable of condolences to the comrades of Benin.

We have received with deep pain the news of the passing of comrade Pascale Fantodji, the First Secretary and founding member of the Communist Party of Benin.

The passing of Pascale Fantodji is not just a great loss for the communists, workers and people of Benin, but also a great loss for communists all over the world.

We believe that the Communists of Benin will remain steadfast despite this time of difficulty and will continue to struggle to achieve the revolutionary goal taunted Pascale Fantodji for all of his life.

– The Tunisian Communist Workers Party, 7 April, 2010


CIA Doctors Face Human Experimentation Claims

Medical ethics group says physicians monitored ‘enhanced interrogation techniques’ and studied their effectiveness

Doctors and psychologists the CIA employed to monitor its “enhanced interrogation” of terror suspects came close to, and may even have committed, unlawful human experimentation, a medical ethics watchdog has alleged.

Physicians for Human Rights (PHR), a not-for-profit group that has investigated the role of medical personnel in alleged incidents of torture at Guantánamo, Abu Ghraib, Bagram and other US detention sites, accuses doctors of being far more involved than hitherto understood.

PHR says health professionals participated at every stage in the development, implementation and legal justification of what it calls the CIA’s secret “torture programme”.

The American Medical Association, the largest body of physicians in the US, said it was in open dialogue with the Obama administration and other government agencies over the role of doctors. “The participation of physicians in torture and interrogation is a violation of core ethical values,” it said.

The most incendiary accusation of PHR’s latest report, Aiding Torture, is that doctors actively monitored the CIA’s interrogation techniques with a view to determining their effectiveness, using detainees as human subjects without their consent. The report concludes that such data gathering was “a practice that approaches unlawful experimentation”.

Human experimentation without consent has been prohibited in any setting since 1947, when the Nuremberg Code, which resulted from the prosecution of Nazi doctors, set down 10 sacrosanct principles. The code states that voluntary consent of subjects is essential and that all unnecessary physical and mental suffering should be avoided.

The Geneva conventions also ban medical experiments on prisoners and prisoners of war, which they describe as “grave breaches”. Under CIA guidelines, doctors and psychologists were required to be present during the use of so-called enhanced interrogation techniques on detainees.

In April, a leaked report from the International Committee of the Red Cross found that medical staff employed by the CIA had been present during waterboarding, and had even used what appeared to be a pulse oxymeter, placed on the prisoner’s finger to monitor his oxygen saturation during the procedure. The Red Cross condemned such activities as a “gross breach of medical ethics”. PHR has based its accusation of possible experimentation on the 2004 report of the CIA’s own inspector general into the agency’s interrogation methods, which was finally published two weeks ago after pressure from the courts.

An appendix to the report, marked “top secret”, provides guidelines to employees of the CIA’s internal Office of Medical Services “supporting the detention of terrorists turned over to the CIA for interrogation”.

Medical workers are given the task of “assessing and monitoring the health of all agency detainees” subjected to enhanced techniques. These techniques include facial slaps, sleep deprivation, walling – where their padded heads are banged against walls – confinement in boxes, and waterboarding or simulated drowning.

The guidelines instruct doctors to carry out regular medical checks of detainees. They must ensure that prisoners receive enough food, though diet “need not be palatable”, and monitor their body temperature when placed in “uncomfortably cool environments, ranging from hours to days”.

The most controversial guideline refers to waterboarding, the technique where prisoners are made to feel as though they are drowning by having water poured over a cloth across their face. The guidelines stress that the method carries physical risks, particularly “by days three to five of an aggressive programme”.

PHR is calling for an official investigation into the role of doctors in the CIA’s now widely discredited programme. It wants to know exactly how many doctors participated, what they did, what records they kept and the science that they applied.


Communist Party of the Workers of France: For us, it is three times “no” to imperialist war

Afghanistan, Libya, Ivory Coast

This is the third front in the war in which French imperialism is engaged: after Afghanistan, Libya, and today, it is the Ivory Coast. The troops of the “Licorne” force are officially engaged in fighting against the forces of Gbagbo.

They are involved in a reactionary civil war that has ravaged that country for years, on one side, that of Ouattara, whose troops are responsible for mass killings. The officials of the UNOCI [United Nations Commission in the Ivory Coast], the military coalition which supports the French armed forces, have asked Ouattara’s supporters to “stop the massacres”! The fighting has already claimed hundreds of victims, mostly civilians.

We reaffirm our opposition to this reactionary war and the participation of the French army. This war may “bury” the Gbagbo regime, but it will only widen and exacerbate the divisions, and aggravate the situation of the popular masses.

With or without a UN mandate, the armies of the imperialist powers do not bring democracy, much less peace. This is true in all the countries where French imperialism is at war!

Together with many organizations, in France and in Africa, we demand that the French troops leave Africa.

Paris, April 5, 2011
Communist Party of the Workers of France

Chilean Communist Party (Proletarian Action): The Assassination of Gadhafi

Comrades and friends:

With the murder of Gadhafi, we Communists in Chile, that is, members of the Chilean Communist Party (Proletarian Action) PC(AP), have decided to make our own the declaration of the PCmlm of Bolivia, which to our understanding has the correct communist position in relation to the imperialist criminals.

Only the lost revisionists and their cousins, the Trotskyites, the pro-Trotskyites and in general all the agents of the bourgeoisie and imperialism, regardless of how they present themselves, can join in the fascist celebration of the murder of Gadhafi.

We communists, who are fighting for Popular Democracy, Socialism and Communism, will never celebrate a murder which the imperialists want to use to symbolize their rule, their re-colonization of a sovereign country, today of Libya. On the contrary we will always be together with the anti-imperialist struggle, the heroic combat of the nations and peoples for national salvation against imperialist aggression and subjection, everything that is part of the Marxist-Leninists today we must stress very energetically and not only for the imperialist propaganda and manipulation of information, but also for the shameful and repugnant role of the reactionary and imperialist bootlickers who dishonor the glorious name of COMMUNIST.

We of the PC(AP) were not only not “critical” observers of the massacre of the heroic Libyan people, nor did we put NATO and the Gadhafi government on the same level. On the contrary we denounced the so-called persistent Libyan “rebels” who put themselves under the infernal and criminal umbrella of the NATO bombings. Our party press, our speeches and the street demonstrations show our struggle in solidarity with the people of Libya, against the aggression for re-colonization by NATO.

As an example of the position of the COMMUNISTS in Chile, that is, of the PC (AP), see our declaration of Friday March 25 and a video made by Quilicura TV.

National Communications Commission of the
Chilean Communist Party (Proletarian Action)

October 22, 2011

Communist Ghadar Party of India: On the tenth anniversary of the invasion of Afghanistan by US imperialism

Anti-Imperialist forces resolve to throw imperialists out of Asia

Anti-imperialist forces organized a public meeting in New Delhi on October 9, 2011. The meeting was initiated by the Lok Raj Sangathan(LRS) and the Jamaat e Islami Hind(JIH). Below we give a report on this event from a correspondent of Mazdoor Ekta Lehar. It was organised to chart out a course of action for the anti-imperialist antiwar forces of our country.

All anti-imperialist forces in India must unite as one to throw the US imperialists and their allies out of Afghanistan, Iraq, and Libya and all over the world. We must develop a powerful anti-imperialist, antiwar movement in defense of the rights of peoples and nations, and of peace and security.

Our brothers and sisters by blood, the people of Afghanistan, are victims of the US led NATO occupation forces. Over 1.3 million people killed as a result of the NATO strikes. Over 5 million Afghans have died as a result of the invasion and occupation. Over three million people are in refugee camps in Iran, Pakistan as well as within Afghanistan.

We have ancient and positive relations with the Afghan people. They have helped us in our moment of need. We can never forget that it was the then ruler of Afghanistan who allowed the Hindostani Ghadar Party to set up in Kabul, the first free Hindostani government during the First World War. The heroic resistance struggles of Afghans to all occupiers — British, Russian, and now American, are folklore. We are proud that Indian soldiers of the British Army faced firing squads for refusing to fight the Afghani people during colonial rule.

We demand that the government of India should reverse its anti-Afghan, anti-Indian, pro-imperialist policy. We demand that it defends the rights of all peoples and nations to determine their own economic and political systems, free from foreign imperialist pressure.

We denounce the decision of the Manmohan Singh government to send the Indian Army to Afghanistan to “train” the puppet Afghan army, set up by the US imperialists, to attack the Afghan people’s anti-imperialist national liberation struggle. We consider this as an excuse to intervene in Afghanistan against our own brothers and sisters.

We believe that the fountainhead of terrorism worldwide is US imperialism.

The revolutionary struggle of the people of Afghanistan, against the occupation forces cannot be called terrorism. We support revolutionary liberation struggles.

The killing of innocent people in bomb blasts in Pakistan, India, and other countries – in trains and buses, masjids and mandirs, courts and market places – is terrorism. We condemn terrorism. We condemn the 9/11 terrorist attacks in the US.

This was the content of every speech in the meeting.

The President of LRS, Shri Raghavan spoke of how over the last ten years, the US imperialists and their allies have sought to overturn all established norms regarding the independence and sovereignty of nations and the right of each nation and its people to pursue the economic and political system of its choice. “Regime change” and installing their lackeys in power, through brutal military intervention, has become the way of advancing imperialist interests in whichever country that does not submit to the dictate of the US imperialists.

Md. Salim Engineer, Secretary, JIH, cited several facts to support his argument that the US state itself was the organiser of the terror attack on the US on September 11, 2001. This was used as justification for the aggression on Afghanistan. He highlighted the danger of allying with the US imperialists. He called on all to stand up in defence of the sovereign right of the Afghan people to decide their own future.

Prakash Rao elaborated on the main features of the present Anglo-American strategy for world domination. Aimed at establishing their imperialist control over the rich oil reserves of Central and West Asia, and check mating all potential rivals, this strategy includes wars of aggression and military intervention in the name of “regime change” for alleged “humanitarian” reasons, coupled with savage attack on the Muslim people all over the world, in the name of “war on terrorism”, and heightened state terrorism.

Tracing the development of events in the region beginning with the Iranian revolution and the occupation of Afghanistan by the Soviet social imperialists in the late seventies. He conclusively established that today US imperialism is the fountainhead of terrorism.

He pointed out that the people of the Islamic faith all over the world are specifically under attack because they have refused to submit to the Anglo-American prescriptions on what form of governance and way of life they choose for themselves.

Elaborating on why Pakistan is being targeted by the US imperialists at this time and what this means for us Indians, he pointed to the mass opposition in Pakistan to the US policy. The people of Pakistan do not want to assist the US imperialists in Afghanistan. Pakistan is also the gateway to China and India and Anglo-American strategy in this region is to block China, India, Russia and Iran.

Prakash Rao condemned the decision of the Manmohan Singh Government to send its army into Afghanistan to train the puppet afghan government’s army to fight the people of Afghanistan . He called on the people of our country to stand with Afghani and Pakistani peoples in these troubled times and to build the unity all the anti-imperialist forces to throw out the Anglo-American imperialists out of Asia.

Dr. Rakesh Rafeeq condemned the growing US imperialist interference in the affairs of India and called for a broad anti-imperialist movement against the designs of US imperialism in this region.

He pointed out that both in Afghanistan and Iraq, Indian state has been collaborating with the US imperialists from the beginning of the occupations and even earlier. India collaborated with the soviet imperialists during their occupation, he pointed out. The infrastructure being built in Afghanistan by the Indian state is to assist the occupation forces. They are not building schools and hospitals for the people.

Those who addressed the meeting included Md. Ahmed, Prof. Ananthnarayan, P.C.Hamzah, Com. Pratap Syamal, Prof. Bharat Seth, Md. Amin Bhat of the Jammu and Kashmir Peace Foundation, Prof. Sheomangal Siddhantkar, Intezar Nayeem. A moving Urdu poem was sung on the theme of the occupation of Iraq.

Manipuri student activists, Malem and Rojesh, denounced the imperialist policy of the Indian state towards the various nations and nationalities and the use of force to deny the peoples their national aspirations. They called for all anti-imperialist forces in our country to oppose the Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA).

Resolutions were unanimously adopted on demanding immediate expulsion of all foreign troops from Afghanistan, condemning the US led war on terror as the biggest threat to peace and well-being of peoples, in solidarity with the people of Pakistan, against the building of close ties between the US and India and for unity with all peace loving and democratic forces to build a strong anti-imperialist movement.

American Party of Labor Statement on the Killing of Muammar Gaddafi

No the Colonization of Libya!

With the victory of the NATO-backed rebels and the National Transitional Council, Libya has been colonized once again. Moammar Gaddafi, the leader of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, has been killed according to the country’s rebel government on October 20th, 2011. Gaddafi was murdered in his hometown of Sirte, a stronghold for his supporters.

From 1911 to 1943, Italy ruled Libya as a protectorate. Under the reign of fascist dictator Benito Mussolini, the colonialists ruthlessly crushed any national resistance to fascism that would threaten Italy’s imperial interests over this oil-rich country. Now, in 2011, the country is once again under the control of foreign powers. Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi has states that the war against Libya is “over,” declaring the domination of Libya complete. Libya’s rich natural resources and enormous oil wealth, estimated to be among the greatest on earth, is once again to be siphoned by imperialism.

Gaddafi was executed on the spot in a brutal and arbitrary way, which raises questions about what sort of regime the Libyan “rebels” are going to build, as if the ethnic cleansing of black Libyans and foreign migrants from cities under their control, as well as their cozy relationship with the Western powers and NATO didn’t raise enough already.

A convoy of Gaddafi loyalists' vehicles is pictured destroyed ny NATO bombs and littered with bodies near Sirte

Bodies of killed Gaddafi loyalists around the drain pipe where the Libyan leader was allegedly found

Gaddafi’s Execution

Gruesome images of Gaddafi’s bloody corpse have been telecast with glee by TV channels all over the world. The circumstances for his death are reprehensible – he had attempted to flee the bombing assault on Sirte in a military convoy when NATO hit two of the vehicles with a Hellfire missile. The rebel forces allegedly found him hiding in a drain pipe near Sirte. Badly wounded in both legs from the bombs, Gaddafi was captured and executed by rebels.

Photos and cell phone video footage of the event, released shortly after the story of the capture broke, show a wounded and injured Gaddafi with his face and shoulders awash in blood. He appeared to have a wound on his head.

The rebel forces that captured him then began their assault, dragging him from his hiding place and beating the former Libyan leader. Video footage clearly shows Gaddafi grimacing in pain, being humiliated, shoved, beaten and bludgeoned. A dazed Gaddafi is then paraded around in the streets of the city to the sound of the baying mob of rebels, shortly before being shot several times in the head and stomach. Some claim he was shouting, “Don’t shoot!” before he was killed, but no one has verified that claim.

Images from Al-Jazeera show his body being dragged on the ground and paraded through the streets before being taken to a morgue, where rebels flocked to take photographs of the body. Afterwards, his body was taken to Misrata, a rebel stronghold, to be displayed in a freezer. Most reports say he was shot in the head with a 9mm while helpless after being captured and severely beaten. News sources are now changing their story, saying Gaddafi was shot while trying to flee.

Gaddafi’s son Mutassim was given a similar treatment by the “freedom fighters” of Libya. The news is now claiming he was killed in a “firefight” in Sirte, but pictures and video have already emerged of Mutassim lying on a sofa, injured and bloodied after his capture but still alive. Pictures of his executed corpse emerged hours later. Gaddafi’s Defense Minister Abu Bakr Jaber Younes was also killed during the capture, as was Abdullah Senussi and about fifty others.

Mohammed el-Bibi, a 20-year-old rebel fighter who is reportedly the one who pulled the trigger, has been hailed as a “hero,” brandishing a gold-plated gun said to have been owned by Gaddafi. Fittingly, he also donned a baseball cap with the New York Yankees logo. After the shooting, he was hoisted up by rebels, who fired volleys of bullets into the air and loudly chanted, “Allah Akbar.”

Mohammed el-Bibi (right) and another rebel waving a golden pistol allegedly taken from Gaddafi

The barbaric condition of Gaddafi’s death is symbolic, showing the nature of the rebels and giving indications of what life for the Libyan people will be like under their regime. Widespread destruction, poverty, dependence and humiliation, not “freedom” or “democracy,” will be the result of this aggressive attack and occupation of Libya.

Rebels celebrating Gaddafi's death

Lies & Propaganda in the Attack on Libya

Much like other wars the United States and NATO have waged, particularly the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the war on Libya began with lies. Much like the media told us the war on Iraq was because Saddam Hussein was building weapons of mass destruction and was going to attack the U.S., they have insisted this is a war to protect innocent civilians. In fact, recent events have shown that the Libyan rebels are not nonviolent, unarmed civilians, and many of the stories of Gaddafi’s atrocities were highly exaggerated.

To begin with, the media ceaselessly compared the Gaddafi government’s actions to the genocide in Rwanda in 1994, where ethnic Hutu militia murdered hundreds of thousands of Tutsis. Since then they have accused Gaddafi of “genocide.” As if that was not enough, accusations of “war rape” and “mass rape” by troops loyal to Gaddafi were spread by mainstream news, backed up by frivolous stories of Gaddafi distributing Viagra to his soldiers to encourage them to rape women.

Months into the civil war and NATO’s campaign, no evidence of a governmentally-sanctioned campaign of genocide or mass rape has been found. In fact, Time Magazine printed a retraction of the Viagra story soon after, and many other news sources admitted there was no evidence of such an action – it was pure warmongering propaganda.

The imperialist coalition of NATO has violated all international laws by waging aggressive and destructive war for their own economic self-interests in the name of “humanitarianism,” as they did in Yugoslavia, as they did in Afghanistan and as they did in Iraq.

Libya and the Arab Spring

Western leaders have tried to say that the revolt in Libya is exactly like the ones happening across the Middle East, including the successful popular revolutions in Egypt and Tunisia, seamlessly integrating the events in Libya into the “Arab Spring” of revolutions and uprisings throughout the Middle East and North Africa.

The uprisings of the “Arab Spring” began in Tunisia, where protests led to the overthrow of pro-US dictator Ben Ali after twenty-four years in power. In neighboring Algeria, the people also flared up in resistance. Soon after, protests erupted in Egypt against the autocratic neo-liberal Hosni Mubarak, who was ousted from office by the revolution. After these events, the “Arab Spring” expanded in the region, and none of the ruling governments could stop them. In this context, Gaddafi took an opportunist position, claiming that the revolts in Egypt were led by Mossad, the Zionist secret service, and announcing that if he were in Tunisia at the time of the revolt, he would have supported Ben Ali. Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Yemen and many others have since been the scene of protests and riots by opposition groups.

In contrast to the various revolts however, it has become obvious since the NATO intervention that the revolt in Libya is not a popular revolution or progressive. It is primarily an attack by racist and reactionary elements of Libyan society against the government of the Libyan Jamahiriya. This uprising might have been legitimate at one point, but it has been hijacked by reactionary pro-imperialist factions.

The Gaddafi regime, before its destruction by the rebels, did promote such privatization and neo-liberal policies to the detriment of its people. However, the NTC has not arisen to combat this turn to the right, but to make Libya even more right-wing. Libya has one of the highest GDP per capita in Africa, as well as the highest Human Development Index. Libya under Gaddafi also had free education, as well as free studies abroad, free medical care, free water, almost free electricity and homes funded by the state. Libya under Gaddafi was the most developed nation in Africa and much of the Middle East.

The anti-Gaddafi forces formed a committee named the “National Transitional Council” on the 27th of February, consisting of defecting interior ministers, various neo-liberals and former justice minister Mustafa Abdul Jalil, who under the Gaddafi regime oversaw and promoted privatization and liberalization policies.

What really reveals the rebels as puppets of foreign powers however, is that they were completely unable to secure victory without the help of NATO. Up until March 7th of this year, the forces of Gaddafi held the rebellion at bay. On March 10th to March 19th, at the request of NTC leaders and with the approval of the Security Council of the United Nations, the imperialist powers imposed a “no-fly-zone” on Libya. As early as March 17th, the United Kingdom and France recognized the NTC as the legitimate government of Libya.

The events came to a head on March 22nd, when the United States, France and Britain deployed a major bombing force to attack pro-Gaddafi targets, afterwards involving all of NATO in the brutal bombing campaign. Since then, the Libyan “rebels” have shown themselves to be a dangerous, crazed hodgepodge of a mob at best, and a ruthless band of killers at worst. They have lynched black Libyans for their skin color and have ethnically cleansed entire cities, all the while waving monarchist flags. Recent reports have even suggested they are rounding up black Libyans and placing them in concentration camps, where widespread rape and executions have been reported.

Omar Mukhtar, led native resistance to Italian colonization of Libya for decades

History of Libya

Libya, a Saharan country located in the heart of North Africa which dared to defy the United States and the European powers, has a fascinating history that is not often reported in the media. The reason being that if they reported on Libya’s past, it would expose how Africa’s right to economic self-determination has continuously been taken away, politically and militarily.

The same NATO countries currently bombing Libya have a history of occupying the country. Libya was a colony of the Turkish Ottoman Empire. After its liberation from Ottoman forces, it became an Italian colony. By 1931, more than 750,000 Libyans had died fighting the Italian occupation. Ironically, both Turkey and Italy are NATO members participating in the attack against Libya.

During World War II, Winston Churchill sought rapprochement with Mussolini, whom he described as a “Roman genius,” claiming that he “rendered a service to the whole world,” calling him “the great law-giver among living men for his anti-Communist stand.”

King Idris the I of Libya

After the war, the Kingdom of Libya under King Idris the I proclaimed its independence on December 24, 1951. Libya became a pro-US and pro-British monarchy. During the reign of King Idris, the Allied powers of Britain, France and the United States (also current members of NATO) enjoyed de-facto control of Libya. The United States built its first air base in Africa, the Wheelus Air Base, on the outskirts of Tripoli for $100 million. The entire country was devastated by the Second World War, which had obliterated what little infrastructure there was in one of the poorest countries in the world. There was virtually no education system or medical care in the country, no stable government and no administrative services.

King Idris & Richard Nixon

In contrast, the West had unhindered access to Libya’s oil and resources. The Wheelus Air Base was used in the Korean War and became a strategic asset for the U.S. Libya was the only source of Middle Eastern oil that wasn’t shut down by the closure of the Suez Canal, and soon the country had hundreds of millions of dollars worth of foreign private investment.

Flag of the Kingdom of Libya under the King - the favorite flag of the rebels

The true nature of the rebellion is shown by the fact that they wave the flag of British and U.S. puppet King Idris the I. After years of poverty under the corrupt monarchy, which sapped the national wealth for the rulers of the Kingdom and not for the people, a bloodless coup was staged by the Free Unionist Officers on September 1, 1969, led by Muammar Gaddafi.

After the coup, the new government assumed full control over oil production and refused to renew licenses for foreign military bases in Libyan territory. 51% of foreign banks and 51% of all oil companies such as Shell, Exxon, Texaco, Socal and Mobil were nationalized by 1973. Oil prices were raised for crude oil when Libya insisted on setting its own prices, and soon agrarian reform and social programs funded by oil revenue helped Libya build itself into the most developed country in Africa. The Western powers have never forgiven the Gaddafi Jamahiriya government for overthrowing their puppet monarchy, and since then Libya has been labeled as one of the “bad Arab states,” with Gaddafi being the lead “bad Arab.”

Where is Libya Heading?

Despite criticisms one might have of the Gaddafi government, NATO has no concern for the Libyan people. Its only mission is the hunger for its world domination.United States Vice President Joe Biden told the press that this invasion will set the stage for future military attacks. “This is more of the prescription for how to deal with the world as we go forward than it has been in the past,” he said. With this statement, the brutal power of NATO to violate the sovereignty of states anywhere they want, and to make the law everywhere in the world as they see fit, is put plainly for all to see.

Gaddafi loyalists fight with the green flag standard of the Libyan Jamahiriya

The foreign policy of U.S. imperialism for years to come will be shaped by bloody invasions which back reactionary puppet governments and suit the Western power’s economic interests. Powers like the United States use humanitarian justifications like “human rights” and “democracy” to support local rebellions and portray them as democrats even if they are little more than terrorists, thugs, drug traffickers or worse. Foreign imperialist powers do not intervene in oil-rich countries for “humanitarian” reasons, for but self-interest, for territorial conquests, and to gain new access to markets and resources.

The fighters against reaction and domination, who struggle still against leaders backed by imperialism’s ambition, must now keep in mind that NATO is watching and waiting to strike. Imperialism is out for blood, out to restore the hegemony it has built all over the globe that enforcers like Ben Ali and Mubarak pushed onto their people for decades. This is imperialism’s response to cries for liberation.

The death of Gaddafi will no doubt have the West proclaiming its “victory” over the resistance, but the Libyan people’s heroic resistance to imperialist war has not been in vain, because the world has been watching and all the peoples of the world have learned from their example.


ICMLPO General Resolution

International Conference of Marxist-Leninist Parties and Organizations 17th Plenum

Madrid October 2011

The Plenary Session of the International Conference of Marxist-Leninist Parties and Organizations (ICMLPO) was successfully held in Madrid with the participation of almost all the member parties and organizations from Europe, the Americas, Africa and Asia.

Throughout the sessions, and after reviewing the work of the parties in their respective countries, the Plenary took note of the inability of capital to resolve the general crisis with the various methods that it has used so far.

Unemployment and misery are affecting millions of workers, and particularly young people and women, both in the main imperialist economies as well as in the dependent countries. The neoliberal programs and policies have not resolved the great difficulties of the system much less the situation of the working class and the peoples.

New sectors of the workers and popular masses are joining the struggle for their rights: the youth, public employees, the unemployed, immigrants are defending the gains won through decades of combat and are trying out new forms of struggle and unity; they are learning precious lessons that raise the level of consciousness of the broad masses and are putting forward objectives of greater significance against capitalism; the advanced sectors are looking at the objectives of socialism.

The idea that the weight of the crisis should fall on the class that has caused it and not on its victims is already a widely shared objective, even an outcry. In Europe, the U.S. and Latin America, the workers are confronting the policies of privatization, cutbacks in social services and plundering; in sub-Sahara Africa, the peoples are resisting being made the battlefield of the imperialist looters; in Asia the workers are carrying out great strike movements and are heroically resisting the imperialist military occupation.

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A Close Look at Shola-e Jawid; Afghanistan’s Communist Maoist Movement

by Habibullah Athaee

This piece discusses the initiations behind the establishment of the Shola-e Jawid, its emergence as Afghanistan’s most influential leftist party at a particular time and the reasons behind the movement’s success and finally it is downfall.

Taking a glance at the events that happened in 1960s around the globe, we can recall the ideological resurrection amongst the nations of the world that was initially rooted in the start ups of the cold war. In the 1960s, the majority of the world was divided into two ideological camps. While almost half of the nations of the world had already raised a red flag—signalizing their communist-based ideology led by the USSR and China, the other half were advocates of liberalism led by the United State and its ideological allies in Western Europe.

As a result of the existence of differing and contradictory ideologies, sentiments favoring revolutionary uprisings were ignited. Thus, China found itself politically struggling and witnessed social unrest from those groups who felt disfranchised. This was manifested in the cultural revolution of China led by Mao Tse-tung. The United States of America was also affected by daily demonstrations of African-Americans led my Martin Luther King demanding elimination of prejudice and discrimination against Blacks, equality and justice.

However, starting from early 1960s, Afghanistan too, though for the first time in its political history, found itself in an unintentional revolution of political thoughts and ideas which were imported through a complicated process. As mentioned above, while almost half of the nations of the world had already raised a Red Flag and gone communist, Afghanistan was just about to enter into a new phase of internal negotiations and dialogues between the advocates and opponents of the school of communism which has been also termed as the “leftist movement” in Afghanistan. These negotiations however, was not limited to dialogues, as there were daily demonstrations and street fighting between demonstrators who were representing university/high school students, workers and political activists with police and armed forces of King Zaher Shah. Having briefly discussed the events of the 1960s, it is quite essential to study the history and formation Afghanistan’s leftist parties who were the organizers of the mass movements against the King. Although hidden, but such initiations by the communists were highly supported by Daoud Khan as he was aiming to seize power.

The history of leftist movements can be traced back to years ago. Some historians claim that the main reason for the formation of a group called “Afghan Youth” during Amanullah Khan was the leftist ideologies and that characters like Abdul Rahman Loudin, Ghulam Mohayy-ul Din Erty and Mir Ghulam Muhammad Ghubar who were advocates of Amanullah Khan were members of the Group, but for the first time, leftist ideologies became vivid in 1340s/1960s by Noor Muhammad Taraki, Babrak Karmal and Afghanistan’s famous historian, Mir Ghulam Muhammad Ghubar. According to Basir Ahmad Hussain-Zadah, an Afghan researcher, one of the reasons behind execution of Abdul Rahman Loudin, Ghulam Mohayy-ul Din Erty and Taaj Mohammad Paghmani, Faiz Mohammad Baroot-Saaz during Nadir Shah’s throne was their relation with Moscow. He also claims that Nadir Shah was informed of such relations by his brother Mohammad Hashim who was Afghanistan’s ambassador to Moscow during the Amanullah’s throne.

Noor Muhammad Taraki, Babrk Karmal, and Mir Ghulam Muhammad Ghubar founded Afghanistan’s first communist party called “Hezb-e Democratic-e Khalq” (Peoples’ Democratic Party) which is known as Afghanistan’s most successful and organized communist party. In 1344–1965, after the events of Sevom-e Aqrab—Oct. 25, another leftist party that is known as Afghanistan’s greatest leftist movement was established under the name of “Jameiat-e Democrati-e Nawin” (New Democratic Society) known as Shola-e Jawid. Unlike its major rival Khalq, Shola-e Jawid was comprised of different ethnic groups and its ideas were embraced by the urban and rural communities throughout the country. Akram and his brother, Sadiq Yari, Hadi and Rahim Mahmoodi, Shapoor, Engineer Osman, Moztareb Bakhtary, were the prominent figures of the movement. Apart from the other leftist parties, this paper will discuss the initiations behind the establishment of the Shola-e Jawid, its emergence as Afghanistan’s most influential leftist party at a particular time and the reasons behind the movement’s success and finally it is downfall. Although there have not been much academic resources available, this paper is written based on personal interviews with different political scholars some of whom are believed to be prominent figures of Shola-e Jawid but their membership with the mentioned party/movement has not been confirmed.

1. Initiations behind the Establishment
Stalin’s death in early 1950s marked a critical turning point in the way Soviet Union used to approach school of communism. Unlike his predecessor, Khrushchev, the leader of the Soviet Union, was an advocate of approaching power through parliament and a parliament based power. The newly established strategies and revised ideologies in the Kremlin resulted in divergence/discrepancies amongst the global advocates of the school of communism. Consequently, China under the leadership of Mao Tse-tung became resistant to the branch of Moscow-based communism. Narrowing it down to Afghanistan, the Kremlin eventually resorted to establishing Afghanistan’s first communist party which was called Peoples’ Democratic Party—locally famous as Khalq. According to Dad Noorani, an experienced journalist in Afghanistan, Shola-e Jawid—behind which was another political organization called Progressive Youth Organization (P.Y.O) under the leadership of Akram Yari—came into existence in the margins of the event of Sevvom-e Aqrab in 1344 (1965) and was in reaction to the establishment of Hezb-e Democratic-e Khalq (Peoples’ Democratic Party of Afghanistan) that was established in 1342 (1963). While Khalq was an advocate of Moscow-based communism, Shola-e Jawid adhered to Maoism. Prominent figures involved in the establishment of Shola-e Jawid were, Akram Yari, Sadiq Yari, Dr. Rahim Mahmudi, Dr. Hadi Mahmudi, and Wasef Bakhtary.

Shola-e Jawid followed Mao’s approach to communism and looked to China’s ideological/cultural revolution as its model. Unlike the other Soviet-backed communist party PDPA, Shola-e Jawid believed that the only way to approach power is through military rebellion and through surrounding the cities by rural rebellious people: this approach to achieving power, according to Mr. Qaseem Akhgar, was also taken from China’s Communistic Revolution, Cuba’s Che Guevara, and Vietnam’s Communist movement. As its first official reaction as a political movement in the country, Shola-e Jawid boycotted the 12th parliamentary elections and issued an article written by Akram Yari calling for people to boycott the fake election, “Let us boycott the mock election.” Shola-e Jawid’s leadership believed that having a parliamentary election is nothing but another deception by the King to legitimize his base of power. On the other side, unlike Shola-e Jawid, Khalq actively participated in the elections and succeeded to introduce four of its well-known members to the parliament.

As mentioned earlier, Maoist ideology, just the same as any other ideologies that have existed in Afghanistan so far, has been imported. Both of the Communist Parties, Khalq and Shola-e Jawid, were receiving the latest handouts that were based on the teachings of communism from their like-minded parties in Iran and to some extent Pakistan. Khalq was highly influenced by the translated works of Hezb-e Toude (The Mass Party), Iran’s communist party, while Shola-e Jawid was receiving Maoist ideas from Sazman-e Enqlabi-e Iran (The Iran’s Revolutionary Organization) through a publication called “Setar-e Sorkh” (Red Star). The handouts, however, were distributed by Akram Yari who, according to Noorani, was the most influential member of the board of leadership of Shola. In 1348(1969) the movement officially announced its existence after four years of underground activities. Along with its official activities, Shola also started a weekly publication called “Shola-e Jawid”(Eternal Flame).

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PCMLE: Bin Laden’s Death & Ten Years of the Imperialist Invasion

From En Marcha newspaper

The killing of Bin Laden claimed by the U.S. President, Barack Obama, was just a few months short of the ten year anniversary of the attack on the Twin Towers and the subsequent invasion of Afghanistan. Just in October 2001 with the action called “Operation Enduring Freedom” by U.S. troops and “Operation Herrick” of the British, aided in the plot to act in “self defense” to promote, together, the invasion and occupation of this ravaged Arab country.

The death of bin Laden, leader of al-Qaeda, came on the morning of May first, passed through U.S. commandos operating in the city of Abbotabad, north of Pakistan, a country believed to be sheltered from foreign invasion.

It is believed that the death of Bin Laden, no doubt, takes on symbolic power and attributes a supposed triumph for the U.S. government, however, much less yield means that the Taliban in their fight “against foreign forces and any other invader,” as said Abdul Salam Zaeef, former Taliban ambassador to Pakistan. Just now, as in previous years, have announced their traditional spring military campaign that involves an intensification of suicide attacks and the assault on bases of the invading troops.

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NATO is a threat to liberties and national sovereignty

Revolusjon Norway

60 years with NATO are 60 years too many

The formation of NATO in 1949 was aimed directly at socialism, at the Soviet Union and the people’s democracies in Europe that had emerged victorious in the aftermath of the anti-fascist WW2. It was aimed at infringing the influence of the strengthened communist parties all over Europe, and simultaneously subduing all the European member countries and curtailing their sovereignty under the thumb of US imperialism. The Marshall plan was the main economic and financial instrument of US imperialism to subdue the «beneficiary» countries to US tutelage. In 1955, West Germany was included in the NATO alliance, thus breaching all agreements between the WW2 allies on never accepting the remilitarization of Germany.

The dominating Social Democratic party (Labour Party) in 1948 played the primary role in paving the road to Norwegian NATO membership through attacking and pursuing the Communist party (which had won great authority throughout the war of anti-fascist resistance and published the second largest newspaper immediately after the war). By ways of lies, intimidation and persecution, the protests and resistance from communists and democrats and a large section of opponents within the Labour party itself were silenced, and the way was paved for NATO and US.

For almost half a century Norway has been a potential battleground and manoeuvre area for thousands of NATO troops, and has been a hub of espionage. The North and Arctic Sea has been NATOs playground, with Norway playing an important role in surveillance and intelligence. Although Norway pretended to have official «objections» to the NATO nuclear strategy, supposedly not permitting nuclear weapons to be stationed on its territory, this was a hoax. In the 60’ies NATO had actual plans of devastating most of Northern Norway by use of nuclear mines as a measure of «defence»!

NATO is an instrument to suppress internal unrest and opposition in any member country. Years ago, it was revealed that NATO exercises in Norway were targeted at handling social unrest among workers and students. Tens of thousands of progressive citizens, including their children, have been under surveillance from the 1950’ies onwards. NATO is sure to give a helping hand to imperialist governments fearing the increasing rage of their own workers and peoples who are victimized by the consequences of the evolving grave economic crisis.

The «new concept» adopted by NATO in the 90’ies has corresponded to a grave and aggressive change in the foreign and military policy of Norway. As a small, but ambitious imperialist country, Norway is eager to defend its assets and investments in energy resources in the Caucasus and the Middle East. The war on Yugoslavia in 1999 was the first time Norwegian soldiers were involved in external military operations not sanctioned by the UN. Since 1999, Norway has been active in several illegitimate wars. Currently some 6-700 troops are taking part in the murderous occupation of Afghanistan. This is occurring under a government coaliton calling itself «red and green», consisting of the Labour party, a rural party and the Socialist Left Party (SV). The latter originated from and has been founded on opposition to; yes, NATO!

Nowadays there is much talk of a closer Nordic Defence Cooperation between Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Norway and Iceland. While the two first countries are not members of NATO, the two latter are not members of the EU. The main intention of this plan, presented as a positive bolstering of the traditional Nordic cooperation, is in effect quite different. The intention is to pave the way for Swedish and Finnish integration with the aggressive NATO alliance on the one hand, and Norwegian and Icelandic integration with the EU on the other. If the Danish prime minister Fogh Rasmussen becomes new general secretary for the NATO, this plan will be sustained.

NATO and EU both threaten the sovereignty and the freedoms of our own peoples and of other peoples and nations worldwide. Both of them must be rejected and defeated by the peoples and the working class.

Red Cross Described “Torture” at CIA Jails

The report graphically describes abuse of Abu Zubaida. (Associated Press)

By Joby Warrick, Peter Finn and Julie Tate

The International Committee of the Red Cross concluded in a secret report that the Bush administration’s treatment of al-Qaeda captives “constituted torture,” a finding that strongly implied that CIA interrogation methods violated international law, according to newly published excerpts from the long-concealed 2007 document.

The report, an account alleging physical and psychological brutality inside CIA “black site” prisons, also states that some U.S. practices amounted to “cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment.” Such maltreatment of detainees is expressly prohibited by the Geneva Conventions.

The findings were based on an investigation by ICRC officials, who were granted exclusive access to the CIA’s “high-value” detainees after they were transferred in 2006 to the U.S. detention camp at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. The 14 detainees, who had been kept in isolation in CIA prisons overseas, gave remarkably uniform accounts of abuse that included beatings, sleep deprivation, extreme temperatures and, in some cases, waterboarding, or simulating drowning.

At least five copies of the report were shared with the CIA and top White House officials in 2007 but barred from public release by ICRC guidelines intended to preserve the humanitarian group’s strict policy of neutrality in conflicts. A copy of the report was obtained by Mark Danner, a journalism professor and author who published extensive excerpts in the April 9 edition of the New York Review of Books, released yesterday. He did not say how he obtained the report.

“The ill-treatment to which they were subjected while held in the CIA program, either singly or in combination, constituted torture,” Danner quoted the report as saying.

Many of the details of alleged mistreatment at CIA prisons had been reported previously, but the ICRC report is the most authoritative account and the first to use the word “torture” in a legal context.

The CIA declined to comment. A U.S. official familiar with the report said, “It is important to bear in mind that the report lays out claims made by the terrorists themselves.”

Often using the detainee’s own words, the report offers a harrowing view of conditions at the secret prisons, where prisoners were told they were being taken “to the verge of death and back,” according to one excerpt. During interrogations, the captives were routinely beaten, doused with cold water and slammed head-first into walls. Between sessions, they were stripped of clothing, bombarded with loud music, exposed to cold temperatures, and deprived of sleep and solid food for days on end. Some detainees described being forced to stand for days, with their arms shackled above them, wearing only diapers.

“On a daily basis . . . a collar was looped around my neck and then used to slam me against the walls of the interrogation room,” the report quotes detainee Tawfiq bin Attash, also known as Walid Muhammad bin Attash, as saying. Later, he said, he was wrapped in a plastic sheet while cold water was “poured onto my body with buckets.” He added: “I would be wrapped inside the sheet with cold water for several minutes. Then I would be taken for interrogation.”

ICRC officials did not dispute the authenticity of the excerpts, but a spokesman expressed dismay over the leak of the material. “We regret information attributed to the ICRC report was made public in this manner,” spokesman Bernard Barrett said.

“The ICRC has been visiting the detainees formerly held by the CIA,” he added, “at Guantanamo since 2006. Any concerns or observations the ICRC had when visiting the detainees are part of a confidential dialogue.”

President George W. Bush acknowledged the use of coercive interrogation tactics on senior al-Qaeda captives detained by the CIA in the aftermath of the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, but he insisted that the measures complied with U.S. and international law. Former CIA director Michael V. Hayden confirmed last year that the measures included the use of waterboarding on three captives before 2003.

The report gives a graphic account of the treatment of Zayn al-Abidin Muhammed Hussein, better known as Abu Zubaida, a Saudi-born Palestinian who was the first alleged senior al-Qaeda operative seized after Sept. 11 — a characterization of his role that is disputed by his attorneys, who describe him as having a different philosophy of jihad than bin Laden.

Abu Zubaida was severely wounded during a shootout in March 2002 at a safe house he ran in Faisalabad, Pakistan, and survived thanks to CIA-arranged medical care, including multiple surgeries. After he recovered, Abu Zubaida describes being shackled to a chair at the feet and hands for two to three weeks in a cold room with “loud, shouting type music” blaring constantly, according to the ICRC report. He said that he was questioned two to three hours a day and that water was sprayed in his face if he fell asleep.

At some point — the timing is unclear from the New York Review of Books report — Abu Zubaida’s treatment became harsher. In July 2002, administration lawyers approved more aggressive techniques.

Abu Zubaida said interrogators wrapped a towel around his neck and slammed him into a plywood wall mounted in his cell. He was also repeatedly slapped in the face, he said. After the beatings, he was placed in coffinlike wooden boxes in which he was forced to crouch, with no light and a restricted air supply, he said.

“The stress on my legs held in this position meant my wounds both in my leg and stomach became very painful,” he told the ICRC.

After he was removed from a small box, he said, he was strapped to what looked like a hospital bed and waterboarded. “A black cloth was then placed over my face and the interrogators used a mineral bottle to pour water on the cloth so that I could not breathe,” Abu Zubaida said.

After breaks to allow him to recover, the waterboarding continued.

“I struggled against the straps, trying to breathe, but it was hopeless,” he said. “I thought I was going to die.”

In a federal court filing, Abu Zubaida’s attorneys said he “has suffered approximately 175 seizures that appear to be directly related to his extensive torture — particularly damage to Petitioner’s head that was the result of beatings sustained at the hands of CIA interrogators and exacerbated by his lengthy isolation.”

Danner said the organization’s use of the word “torture” has important legal implications.

“It could not be more important that the ICRC explicitly uses the words ‘torture’ and ‘cruel and degrading,’ ” Danner said in a telephone interview. “The ICRC is the guardian of the Geneva Conventions, and when it uses those words, they have the force of law.”

He discounted the possibility that the detainees fabricated or embellished their stories, noting that the accounts overlap “in minute detail,” even though the detainees were kept in isolation at different locations.

Human rights groups echoed his assessment.

“These reports are from an impeccable source,” said Geneve Mantri, a counterterrorism specialist at Amnesty International. “It’s clear that senior officials were warned from the very beginning that the treatment that detainees were subjected to amounted to torture. This story goes even further and deeper than many us of suspected. The more details we find out, the more shocking this becomes.”


History of the Imperialist “Great Game”

Afghanistan has been the victim of conspiracy and contention between the imperialists for more than a century. The term “the Great Game” was first used to describe the sparring between the British imperialists and Tsarist Russia over control of Afghanistan in the early part of the nineteenth century. One side of Afghanistan is the gate to central Asia and the other opens towards the Indian peninsula and to the open seas long coveted by Russia. The first Western colonialists to invade Afghanistan, the British occupied Kabul in 1839 in their rivalry with Russia.

The Afghan people drove the British out in three successive British-Afghan wars. These heroic struggles of the people could not liberate the country from colonialism and exploitation, and each time tribal chiefs and feudal lords traded the future of the people for small concessions from the colonialist overlords. Following the First World War and the victory of the proletariat led by the Bolshevik Party in Russia, which exhilarated the oppressed masses of the world, the third of these anti-colonialist wars succeeded in establishing independence under the rule of Amanullah Khan, ushering in a new era characterised by semi-feudalism and semi-colonialism.

The British continued to pursue their influence in Afghanistan, even more wary now given the existence of a socialist country to the north. Yet the British Empire was beginning to decline, overshadowed by the rising strength of US imperialism, through the aftermath of the Second World War. In the mid-1950s the new revisionist rulers in the Soviet Union, who had overthrown socialism, pushed to extend their influence by entering the “Great Game” in Afghanistan. The appetite of Soviet social-imperialism grew geometrically in the 1970s as contention with the US imperialists and their Western allies for controlling greater parts of the world intensified.

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