These quotes from Enver Hoxha show the PLA’s attitude toward the phenomenon of the “Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution,” which portrayed itself as a movement of the working class but in reality was a decade-long student riot driven by the cult of Mao that maintained and preserved revisionist rule in China and welcomed the black reaction of Hua Guofeng and Deng Xiaoping.
Contained also in these quotes are the beginnings of the criticism of the cult of Mao which is still upheld in China to this day, as well as criticism of the revisionist economic practices of “new Democracy” in China wherein the bourgeoisie were allowed to exist and participate in government as well as receive fixed income from their property.
The culmination of the Mao cult was the publication of “Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-tung” by the Maoist revisionists in the leadership. All of these criticisms would be taken up publicly between China and Albania in the 1960’s and 70’s.
August 9th, 1966
Marx condemned the cult of the individual as sickening. However, we observe with regret that in recent months the Chinese comrades have embarked on the wrong, anti-Marxist course, of turning the cult of Mao almost into a religion, exalting him in the most sickening way, without giving the least consideration to the great harm this is doing to our cause, not to mention the ridicule to which it is giving rise.
We condemn this unrestrained, non-Marxist propaganda. But the fact is that our criticism on this question to Chou En-lai on his last visit here had no effect at all. Are we dealing with Marxists or religious fanatics?
The question arises; why all this unrestrained propaganda? I can explain it only, as the deafening beating of a drum to conceal some hostile activity.
Further, the Chinese comrades, who in so many things show themselves cautious and slow to move, now begun to smash things with axes. We agree that the axe should be used, where necessary, but in China it is falling upon every work of art, every literary creation, regardless of its overall progressive spirit.
Progressive world culture in general appears to have no value at all in the eyes of the Chinese comrades. To allow the students to display this terrible xenophobia, as is being done in China is a great mistake which has nothing in common with proletarian internationalism.
August 20th, 1966
A great puzzle! Astonishing events, dangerous to the great cause of Communism are taking place. We have a problem with many unknown factors; we have to try to see clearly into this dark Chinese forest with Marxist judgment.
The Proletarian Cultural Revolution against bourgeois elements in the field of culture should have been inspired by Marxist-Leninist, ideology and organised and led by the Party. There should have been no smell of mysticism, metaphysics or idealism in its essence, its
forms or its tactics. For then it is no longer a Proletarian Cultural Revolution, but however it may be portrayed, its opposite.
Chinese propaganda presents it as a revolution launched spontaneously from below, by the masses. But in reality it had to be organized. By whom? Here the figure of Lin Piao emerges. But how is it possible for such a Cultural Revolution to be launched by one person; while the Party and its Central Committee remain in the background? Only the Central Committee of the Party can take such decisions. It is a fact since 1956, when the 8th Congress of the CPC was held, more than five years have elapsed since the time when the 9th. Congress should have been convened. Why is this?
Normally, also, Plenums of the Central Committee of a Marxist-Leninist Party are held twice a year; but the recent Plenum of the CC of the CPC was held after four years delay! Then who is leading the Party? I suspect that since 1956, Mao has been left on the sidelines and turned into a mere symbol. Recently the Party has been completely over-shadowed by the name of, Mao Tse-tung. Behind the fanaticisation around the person of Mao Tse-tung lies something very dangerous.
August 26th, 1966
Today I read the 16-point document on the Cultural Revolution issued by the recent Plenum of the CC of the CPC. This implies that the enemy had deeply penetrated the party, to the point where it had taken over the leadership of whole Party committees.
One thing worries me: the role of the CC and of the Party as a whole emerges as weak. Another thing, strikes the eye. Although school pupils and students hold the initiative in the Cultural Revolution, the Party’s youth organisation is not to be seen anywhere. What is even more serious, there is no sign of the participation of the working class; it seems as if they are afraid of it.
Although power appears to be in the hands of the proletariat, it is possible that the bourgeoisie is still powerful and dangerous. The Chinese comrades admit this when the put the question: Which will win in China, socialism or capitalism.
Industry in China is declared to be socialist, but we see that the capitalists in enterprises still receive a fixed interest. This should not have been allowed. Instead of receiving crushing blows, all the enemies were “re-educated” and “placed in suitable jobs” where they could carry on hostile activity.
September 1st, 1966
What this “Red Guard” is and why it is being created is not clear to us. It has been said that, it is being formed “to carry out a radical purge of capitalist and revisionist culture.” But this task has been begun in an anarchic and confused manner.
Certain serious questions strike us at the start:
1. The “Red Guard” is composed mainly of youth, university students and school pupils. But it cannot be carried out by students alone.
2. If this is to be a revolution in favour of “proletarian culture,” it is amazing that is the working class and peasantry are sitting by as onlookers! Whatever the Chinese comrades say, nothing satisfactorily explains this.
3. What has become of the Communist Youth? Its voice is not being heard at all. It seems as if it does not exist. The only concrete thing which the “Red Guard” does is to praise Mao Tse-tung to the skies, presenting him as a god: in the full sense of the term.
September 20th, 1966
The true purpose of the “Red Guard” movement remains unknown to us. It is certainly acting without leadership or control.
The Chinese comrades simply must inform our Party about the full decisions of the recent plenum of the CC of the CPC. The “excuse” that the Chinese ambassador in Tirana has been away from his post for five months “doing his physical labour” in China is unacceptable. Even if the Chinese comrades continue on this wrong, non-Marxist-Leninist course, we shall never allow our Party to be committed to the course of the cult of the individual.
January 29th, 1967
It is now clear that Mao found himself in a minority, and for this reason had to rely on the army. The military fist under the direction of Mao and Lin Piao is the reality standing behind the Cultural Revolution.
April 7th, 1967
The “new form” which emerged from the Cultural Revolution appears to be that the Chinese moving towards the “unification of” the Party with the state”!?
April 28th, 1967
A Marxist-Leninist Party like ours, which is building socialism correctly, cannot proceed on the road advocated by the Chinese. A Marxist-Leninist Party like ours deepens the revolution, but not like that which is going on in China today.
July 14th, 1967
Posters in China say: “Mao Tse-tung Thought is the culmination of Marxism.” Surely Mao himself cannot approve such wild exaggerations. But the fact is that they are occurring.
Guided by hasty judgments, incorrect principles and ill-considered claims, the Chinese comrades could gravely damage the new Marxist-Leninist groups and parties which are in process of creation.
In seeking to establish that “Mao is the world leader” of international Communism, it could happen that if some Marxist-Leninist group or party does not put much emphasis on Mao and the Cultural Revolution while some deviators from Marxism-Leninism emphasize these things strongly, the Chinese comrades will prefer the latter. And the damage has been done.
The Chinese have reached the conclusion that the little red book, “Quotations from Mao Tse-tung” is “the culmination of Marxist-Leninist science and philosophy.” Such claims are infantile.
Today they are carrying on without an organised party. How can they advise the Marxist-Leninists of the world how to form and consolidate new parties?
August 15th, 1967
The Chinese press is liquidating Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin and making a god of Mao, reaching the scandalous level of saying; “Those who do no follow the road of Mao and the Cultural Revolution are ‘deviators.’” This wrong. This is not Marxism, but Trotskyism.
January 16th, 1968
We have almost no contact with the Chinese comrades and do not know official1y what is happening there. They withdrew their ambassador in Tirana on the grounds that he was implicated in the activities of the Liu-Teng group. When will he be replaced? There is no signal.
January 19th, 1968
The main Chinese newspapers are publishing the directive on the re-organization of the Communist Party and the mass organizations. Thus it is confirmed that up to now the CPC has been broken up and that the Cultural Revo1ution was in fact led by Mao and the “Main Group of the Cultural Revolution.”
March 20th, 1968
In the international arena the voice of China is almost, if not completely, silent. Thus it is not acting wisely. For nearly a year they have not had an ambassador even here in our country. Can this be covered by the excuse: “We haven’t a good man?” Or is it in order to reflect their silent dissatisfaction that we are not shouting `hosannas’ to Mao and not following their mistaken tactic of silence in the international field?
We see a similar superficial stand on the part of the Chinese comrades, towards the new Marxist-Leninist groups and parties. They have contacts and give aid to many groups and Parties, even to those groups separate from or hostile to the new parties, justifying these undifferentiated contacts by saying: “We assist all groups that fight imperialism and modern revisionism.” But the struggle brings about differentiation, and this must, be followed up on a principled basis.
April 25th, 1968
Under the cloak of the Cultural Revolution, the Chinese have shut themselves up completely in their own shell. They are merely publishing the quotations of Mao, in millions of copies, making millions of Mao badges, and spreading slogans in praise of him.
Nothing else, absolutely nothing else!
All China’s contacts with the outside world have been completely frozen if not broken off altogether. All China’s ambassadors have been withdrawn from the countries where they were serving. Neither their newspapers, nor Hsinhua, nor Radio Peking, deal with any international question.
Even with us their closest friends, contacts are glacial. They don’t allow our ambassador in Peking any contacts; he is isolated. An astonishing situation!
They have refused our invitation to send a delegation to the May Day celebrations, and have not invited any delegation from our side either. They carry on a “Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution,” yet ignore the celebration of the proletarians! This too is astonishing!